1Process of Recruitment
2 Recruitment Policy
3 Factor Affecting Recruitment
4 Methods of Recruitment
RECRUITMENT: Recruitment forms a step in the
process which continues with selection and
ceases with the placement of the candidate. It is the next step in the
procurement function, the first being the manpower planning. Recruiting makes
it possible to acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure the
continued operation of the organisation. Recruiting is the discovering of
potential applicants for actual or anticipated organisational vacancies.
According to Edwin B. Flippo, ―Recruitment
is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to
apply for jobs in the organisation.‖
According to Lord, ―Recruitment
is a form of competition. Just as corporations compete to develop, manufacture, and market the best
product or service, so they must also compete to identify, attract and hire the
most qualified people. Recruitment is a business, and it is a big business.‖
In the words of Dale Yoder, ― Recruiting is a process to discover
the sources of manpower to meet the requirements
of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that
manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient
Human Resource Acquisition Process
According to Werther and Davis, ―Recruitment
is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits
are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool
of applicants form which new employees are selected.‖
Dales S. Beach writes, ―Recruitment
is the development and maintenance of adequate manpower resources. It involves the creation of a pool of available labour
upon whom the organisation can depend when it needs additional employees.‖
recruitment process is concerned with the identification of possible sources of
human resource supply and tapping those sources. In the total process of
acquiring and placing human resources in the organisation, recruitment falls in
between different sub-processes as shown in Figure 4.2.
According to Scott, Clothier and
Spriegel the need for recruitment arises out of the following situations:
created due to expansion, diversification, and growth of business.
An increase in the competitive advantage of certain
concerns, enabling them to get more of the available business than formerly.
increase in business arising from an upswing during the recovery period of a
business cycle. Vacancies created due to transfer, promotion, retirement,
termination, permanent disability or
The normal population growth, which requires
increased goods and services to meet the needs of the people.
A rising standard of living, which requires more of
the same goods and services as well as the creation of new wants to be
1Process of Recruitment
process passes through the following stages:
Recruitment process begins when the personnel
department receives requisitions for recruitment from any department of the
company, The personnel requisitions contain details about the position to be
filled, number of persons to be recruited, the duties to be performed,
qualifications expected from the candidates, terms and conditions of employment
and the time by which the persons should be available for appointment etc.
and developing the sources of required number and type of employees.
Identifying the prospective employees with required characteristics.
Developing the techniques to attract the desired
candidates. The goodwill of an organisation in the market may be one technique.
The publicity about the company being a good employer may also help in
stimulating candidates to apply. There may be others of attractive salaries,
proper facilities for development etc.
the effectiveness of recruitment process.
According to Famularo, personnel
recruitment process involves five elements, viz., a recruitment policy, a recruitment organisation, a forecast
of manpower, the development of sources of recruitment, and different
techniques used for utilising these sources, and a method of assessing the
recruitment programme. The explanation of these is described below:
1. Recruitment Policy: It
specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for the implementation of the recruitment
programme. It also involves the employer‘s commitment to some principles as to
find and employ the best qualified persons for each job, to retain the most
promising of those hired, etc. It should be based on the goals, needs and
environment of the organisation.
2. Recruitment Organisation: The
recruitment may be centralised like public sector banks or decentralised. Both practices have their own merits. The choice
between the two will depend on the managerial philosophy and the particular
needs of the organisation.
3. Sources of Recruitment: Various
sources of recruitment may be classified as internal and external. These have their own merits and
4. Methods of Recruitment: Recruitment
techniques are the means to make contact with potential candidates, to provide them necessary information and to encourage
them to apply for jobs.
5. Evaluation of Recruitment Programme: The
recruitment process must be evaluated periodically. The criteria for evaluation may consist of cost per applicant, the
hiring ratio, performance appraisal, tenure of stay, etc. After evaluation,
necessary improvements should be made in the recruitment programme.
2 Recruitment Policy
et al observe recruitment policy spells out the objectives of the recruitment
and provides a framework for implementations of the recruitment programme in
the form of procedures. It may involve a commitment to broad principles such as
filling vacancies with the best qualified individuals. The recruitment policy
may embrace several issues such as the extent of promotion from within,
attitudes of enterprise in recruiting old, handicapped, and minor individuals,
minority group members, part-time employees and relatives of present employees.
In addition, the recruitment policy may also involve the organisation system to
be developed for implementing the recruitment programme and procedures to be
employed. Explicitly, an organisational system is a function of the size of an
enterprise. In smaller enterprises, there may be merely informal recruiting
procedures and the line official may be responsible to handle this function
along with their usual responsibilities. On the other hand, in larger
organisations, there is usually a staff unit attached with personnel or an
industrial relations department designated as employment or recruitment office.
This specialisation of recruitment enables staff personnel to become highly
skilled in recruitment techniques and their evaluation. However, recruitment
remains the line responsibility as far as thepersonnel requisition forms are
originated by the line personnel, who have also the final word in the
acceptance or rejection of a particular applicant. Despite this, the staff
personnel have adequate freedom in respect of sources of manpower to be tapped
and the procedure to be followed for this purpose.
policy covers the following areas:
prescribe the degree of emphasis. Inside the organisation or outside the
To provide the weightage that would be given to
certain categories of people such as local population, physically-handicapped
personnel, personnel from scheduled castes/tribes and other backward classes.
prescribe whether the recruitment would be centralised or decentralised at unit
To specify the degree of flexibility with regard to
age, qualifications, compensation structure and other service conditions.
To prescribe the personnel who would be involved in
recruitment process and the role of human resource department in this regard.
specify the budget for meeting the expenditures incurred in completing the
According to Yoder, ―the
recruitment policy is concerned with quantity and qualifications of manpower.‖ It establishes broad guidelines for
the staffing process. Generally, the following factors are involved in a
To provide each employee with an open road and
encouragement in the continuing development of his talents and skills;
To provide individual employees with the maximum of
employment security, avoiding, frequent lay-off or lost time;
To avoid cliques which may develop when several
members of the same household or community are employed in the organisation;
To carefully observe the letter and spirit of the
relevant public policy on hiring and, on the whole, employment relationship;
each employee of the organisation interest in his personal goals and employment
objective; To assure employees of fairness in all employment relationships,
including promotions and transfers;
To provide employment in jobs which are engineered
to meet the qualifications of handicapped workers and minority sections; and
encourage one or more strong, effective, responsible trade unions among the
Prerequisites of a Good
Recruitment Policy: The recruitment policy of an organisation must
satisfy the following conditions:
be in conformity with its general personnel policies;
be flexible enough to meet the changing needs of an organisation;
It should be so designed as to ensure employment
opportunities for its employees on a long-term basis so that the goals of the
organisation should be achievable; and it should develop the potentialities of
It should match the qualities of employees with the
requirements of the work for which they are employed; and
highlight the necessity of establishing job analysis.
3 Factor Affecting Recruitment
factors affecting recruitment can be classified as internal and external
The internal factors are:
composition of existing working force; Promotion and retirement policies;
nature of operations involved the kind of personnel required; The level and
seasonality of operations in question;
expansion and reduction programmes; Recruiting policy of the organisation;
resource planning strategy of the company;
the organisation and the number of employees employed;
involved in recruiting employees, and finally; Growth and expansion plans of
The external factors are:
and demand of specific skills in the labour market;
image perception of the job seekers about the company.
External cultural factors: Obviously, the culture
may exert considerable check on recruitment. For example, women may not be
recruited in certain jobs in industry.
Economic factors: such as a tight or loose labour
market, the reputation of the enterprise in the community as a good pay master
or otherwise and such allied issues which determine the quality and quantity of
manpower submitting itself for recruitment.
Political and legal factors also exert restraints
in respect of nature and hours of work for women and children, and allied
employment practices in the enterprise, reservation of Job for SC, ST and so
4 Methods of Recruitment
of recruitment are different from the sources of recruitment. Sources are the
locations where prospective employees are available. On the other hand, methods
are way of establishing links with the prospective employees. Various methods
employed for recruiting employees may be classified into the following
1. Direct Methods:
include sending recruiters to educational and professional institutions,
employees, contacts with public, and manned exhibits. One of the widely used
direct methods is that of sending of recruiters to colleges and technical
schools. Most college recruiting is done in co-operation with the placement
office of a college. The placement office usuallyprovides help in attracting
students, arranging interviews, furnishing space, and providing student
For managerial, professional and sales personnel
campus recruiting is an extensive operation. Persons reading for MBA or other
technical diplomas are picked up in this manner. For this purpose, carefully
prepared brochures, describing the organisation and the jobs it offers, are
distributed among students, before the interviewer arrives. Sometimes, firms
directly solicit information from the concerned professors about students with
an outstanding record. Many companies have found employees contact with the public
a very effective method. Other direct methods include sending recruiters to
conventions and seminars, setting up exhibits at fairs, and using mobile
offices to go to the desired centre
of Contacting Prospective Candidates
2. Indirect Methods:
frequently used indirect method of recruitment is advertisement in newspapers,
journals, and on the radio and television. Advertisement enables candidates to
assess their suitability. It is appropriate when the organisation wants to
reach out to a large target group scattered nationwide. When a firm wants to
conceal its identity, it can give blind advertisement in which only box number
is given. Considerable details about jobs and qualifications can be given in
the advertisements. Another method of advertising is a notice-board placed at
the gate of the company.
3. Third-Party Methods:
frequently used third-party methods are public and private employment agencies.
Public employment exchanges have been largely concerned with factory workers
and clerical jobs. They also provide help in recruiting professional employees.
Private agencies provide consultancy services and charge a fee. They are
usually specialised for different categories of operatives, office workers,
salesmen, supervisory and management personnel. Other third-party methods
include the use of trade unions. Labour-management committees have usually
demonstrated the effectiveness of trade unions as methods of