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Chapter: 12th English : UNIT 4 : Prose : The Summit


On the basis of your understanding of the given passage, make notes in any appropriate format.


On the basis of your understanding of the given passage, make notes in any appropriate format.

The Sherpas were nomadic people who first migrated from Tibet approximately 600 years ago, through the Nangpa La pass and settled in the Solukhumbu District, Nepal. These nomadic people then gradually moved westward along salt trade routes. During 14th century, Sherpa ancestors migrated from Kham. The group of people from the Kham region, east of Tibet, was called “ShyarKhamba”. The inhabitants of ShyarKhumbu, were called Sherpa. Sherpa migrants travelled through Ü and Tsang, before crossing the Himalayas. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated out of Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa. These four groups have since split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today.

Sherpas had little contact with the world beyond the mountains and they spoke their own language. AngDawa, a 76-year-old former mountaineer recalled “My first expedition was to Makalu [the world’s fifth highest mountain] with Sir Edmund Hillary’’. We were not allowed to go to the top. We wore leather boots that got really heavy when wet, and we only got a little salary, but we danced the Sherpa dance, and we were able to buy firewood and make campfires, and we spent a lot of the time dancing and singing and drinking. Today Sherpas get good pay and good equipment, but they don’t have good entertainment. My one regret is that I never got to the top of Everest. I got to the South Summit, but I never got a chance to go for the top.

The transformation began when the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Edmund Hillary scaled Everest in 1953. Edmund Hillary took efforts to build schools and health clinics to raise the living standards of the Sherpas. Thus life in Khumbu improved due to the efforts taken by Edmund Hillary and hence he was known as ‘Sherpa King’.

Sherpas working on the Everest generally tend to perish one by one, casualties of crevasse falls, avalanches, and altitude sickness. Some have simply disappeared on the mountain, never to be seen again. Apart from the bad seasons in 1922, 1970 and 2014 they do not die en masse. Sherpas carry the heaviest loads and pay the highest prices on the world’s tallest mountain. In some ways, Sherpas have benefited from the commercialization of the Everest more than any group, earning income from thousands of climbers and trekkers drawn to the mountain. While interest in climbing Everest grew gradually over the decades after the first ascent, it wasn’t until the 1990s that the economic motives of commercial guiding on Everest began. This leads to eclipse the amateur impetus of traditional mountaineering. Climbers looked after each other for the love of adventure and “the brotherhood of the rope” now are tending to mountain businesses. Sherpas have taken up jobs as guides to look after clients for a salary. Commercial guiding agencies promised any reasonably fit person a shot at Everest.

Note Making

1. The sherpas

i) nomotic people migrated from Tibet two years ago

ii) settled in the solukhumbu in Nepal.

2. Shyarkhamba

i) sherpa's ancestors migrated from kham

ii) east Tibet people called " shyatehambu"

iii) migrants through V and Tsong.

3. Sherpa’s clans:

i) there are four groups such as miyagpa, thimmi, sertawa and chawa.

ii) Split into mone than 20 groups today.

4. Angdawa- mountaineer

i) 76 years old mountaineer

ii) recalled his expedition to Makala with innud hillay.

5. Habits ao Sherpa’s

i) wore leather boots,

ii) spent time dancing, swimming and drinking 

iii). Those days don't have good

6. Sherpa king:

i) Edmund hildary known as shrpa king.

ii) built shoots, and health clinic for shapa.

7. Life of Sherpa:

i) arry the hewiest loads and earning income.

ii) Looked after each other for love of adventure and the brotherhood. 

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