It‘s a tool which enables the banker or lender to arrive at the following factors :
Quality of the Management
Safety & Security of the loans & advances to be or already been provided
Current Ratio : It is the relationship between the current assets and current liabilities of a concern.
Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current Liabilities
If the Current Assets and Current Liabilities of a concern are Rs.4,00,000 and Rs.2,00,000 respectively, then the Current Ratio will be : Rs.4,00,000/Rs.2,00,000 = 2 : 1
The ideal Current Ratio preferred by Banks is 1.33 : 1
Net Working Capital : This is worked out as surplus of Long Term Sources over Long Tern Uses, alternatively it is the difference of Current Assets and Current Liabilities.
NWC = Current Assets – Current Liabilities
ACID TEST or QUICK RATIO : It is the ratio between Quick Current Assets and Current Liabilities. The should be at least equal to 1.
Quick Current Assets : Cash/Bank Balances + Receivables upto 6 months + Quickly
realizable securities such as Govt. Securities or quickly marketable/quoted shares and Bank Fixed Deposits
Acid Test or Quick Ratio = Quick Current Assets/Current Liabilities
DEBT EQUITY RATIO : It is the relationship between borrower‘s fund (Debt) and Owner‘s
Long Term Outside Liabilities / Tangible Net Worth
Liabilities of Long Term Nature
Total of Capital and Reserves & Surplus Less Intangible Assets
OPERATING PROFIT RATIO :
It is expressed as => (Operating Profit / Net Sales ) x 100
Higher the ratio indicates operational efficiency
NET PROFIT RATIO :
It is expressed as => ( Net Profit / Net Sales ) x 100
It measures overall profitability.
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