Protection System Requirements and some basic terminologies used
• The fundamental requirements for a protection system are as follows:
It is the ability of the protection system to operate correctly. The reliability feature has two basic elements, which are dependability and security. The dependability feature demands the certainty of a correct operation of the designed system, on occurrence of any fault. Similarly, the security feature can be defined as the ability of the designed system to avoid incorrect operation during faults. A comprehensive statistical
method based reliability study is required before the protection system may be commissioned. The factors which affect this feature of any protection system depends on some of the following few factors.
· Quality of Component used
· Maintenance schedule
· The supply and availability of spare parts and stocks
· The design principle
· Electrical and mechanical stress to which the protected part of the system is subjected to.
Minimum operating time to clear a fault in order to avoid damage to equipment. The speed of the protection system consists primarily of two time intervals of interest.
This is the time between the instant of occurrence of the fault to the instant at which the relay contacts open.
This is the time between the instant of closing of relay contacts to the instant of final arc extinction inside the medium and removal of the fault.
This feature aims at maintaining the continuity of supply system by disconnecting the minimum section of the network necessary to isolate the fault. The property of selective tripping is also known as “discrimination”. This is the reason for which the entire system is divided into several protective zones so that minimum protion of network is isolated with accuracy. Two examples of utilization of this feature in a relaying scheme are as follows
a) Time graded systems
b) Unit systems
The sensitivity of a relay refers to the smallest value of the actuating quantity at which the relay operates detecting any abnormal condition. In case of an over current relay, mathematically this can be defined as the ratio between the short circuit fault current (Is) and the relay operating current (Io). The value of Io , should not be too small or large so that the relay is either too sensitive or slow in responding.
It is the quality of any protection system to remain stable within a set of defined operating scenarios and procedures. For example the biased differential scheme of differential protection is more stable towards switching transients compared to the more simple and basic Merz Price scheme in differential protection
It is economically unviable to have a 100% protection of the entire system in concern. Therefore, the cost of the designed protection system varies with the criticality and importance of the protected zone. The protection system for more critical portions
is generally costly, as all the features of a good protection system is maximized here. But a small motor can be protected by a simple thermally operated relay, which is simple and cheap. Therefore, the cost of the protection system should be adequate in its cost. 1.4.7 Some basic terminologies used in protection system Some basic terminologies commonly used in the protection system are enlisted below. i) Measuring Relay ii) Fault Clearing Time iii) Auxilliary relay iv) Relay Time v) Pick up value vi) Reset Value vii) Drop out viii) Reach ( under and over reaches) ix) Relay Burden x) Unit/ Non unit protection xi) All or Nothing relay.