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Chapter: Protection and Switchgear - Introduction

Consequences of occurrence of Faults

Consequences of occurrence of Faults
Faults are of two type · Short circuit fault- current · Open circuit fault- voltage

Consequences of occurrence of Faults

 

Faults are of two type

 

·                    Short circuit fault- current

 

·                    Open circuit fault- voltage

 

In terms of seriousness of consequences of a fault , short circuits are of far greater concern than open circuits, although some open circuits present some potential hazards to personnel Classification of short circuited Faults

 

Three phase faults (with or without earth connection)

 

Two phase faults (with or without earth connection)

 

Single phase to earth faults

 

Classification of Open Circuit Faults

 

Single Phase open Circuit

 

Two phase open circuit

 

Three phase open circuit

 

Consequences

 

  Damage to the equipment due to abnormally large and unbalanced currents and low voltages produced by the short circuits

 

   Explosions may occur in the equipments which have insulating oil, particularly during short circuits. This may result in fire and hazardous conditions to personnel and equipments

 

    Individual generators with reduced voltage in a power station or a group of generators operating at low voltage may lead to loss of synchronism, subsequently resulting in islanding.

 

  Risk of synchronous motors in large industrial premises falling out of step and tripping out. The general layout of a protection system may be viewed as given in the following figure

 





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