Process Flow in a Garment Industry
Garment manufacturing includes a number of processes from order receiving to dispatching and shipment of the finished garments.
Merchandiser is a person who interacts with the buyer and seller, and also puts efforts into proper relation between buying offices, buying agents, agency and seller, exporter in terms of executing an order. A garment export unit generally has many departments like stores, cutting, production, packing and checking. Merchandising department is the star of the department among all the working departments in the export concern, because merchandising is the only department having maximum control over the departments and totally responsible for profit and loss of the company. The job of a merchandiser is to coordinate with the entire department in the office as well as the customers. Merchandiser meets the buyers and collects the details of their requirements to develop the relationship with the customer. After conformation of an order from the buyer the planning process for execution of the order is done.
Designing and sampling are the main process in garment industry and it has a vital role in attracting buyers. The buyers generally places the order after they are satisfied with the quality of the samples. The samples decide the ability of an exporter. The buyer will access the exporter and his organisation only by the samples. The purpose of sampling is not only to get bulk orders and also give some additional benefits to the exporters. By doing sampling the exporter can estimate the yarn consumption for developing the fabric, a clear idea on costing and more over the manufacturing difficulties. There are different phases of sampling; the first phase covers the development of the initial concept or design idea through its approval by the customer. The second phase covers the process following acceptance of the first prototype sample and includes the functions of sourcing and ordering component, testing the product and carry out trails and finalized sample specifications. The third and final phase includes a range of activities that are carried out before large scale or bulk production capacity outside the home producer or developers wherever this is applicable.
After receiving purchase order from the buyer merchandiser plans and issues purchase order for buying raw materials like fabric, buttons, thread, and for dyeing, printing, embroidery and other accessories. These raw materials’ are checked for colour, quality and then approved by the merchandiser.
Approved sample, pattern and measurement chart must be ready in the department. The head of the department will be a pattern master. His skill will be a very big asset to the company by way of saving the fabric and making new designs for the export trade.
Machinery required: one cutting machine. One table of 18 m/1.5m length and breadth
In the cutting department, spreading plays a vital role. In spreading, the number of plies of fabric, that the production planning process has dictated to the length of the marker plan, colours required are correctly aligned as to length and width, and without tension. This saves time, cost of cutting and cost of materials.
The amount of fabric consumed per garment and the total profit of the garment unit is decided by the marker planning and marker making. The length and width of the marker is very important here. Based on this marker only the spreading length will be decided. The fabric consumptions and fabric wastages depends on this marker making. The industry has always paid great attention to marker planning, because when the cutting room cuts cloth it spends around half the company’s turnover. Any reduction in the amount of cloth used per garment leads to increased profit.
Power operated machines preferably batch system is used to get uniform quality andbetter productivity. Production in charge will be responsible for the sewing operation. He must know quality aspects in every stage, guide tailors and supervisors to get the work done at satisfactory level and to meet the targets. Additional to sewing machines, attachments, guides, folders are required for special operations. Machines like Double needle, Feed of arm, Button Hole and Buttoning machines are also required.
Either for effects or shrinkage garments are washed. Washes vary depending upon the type of fabric used and the type of garment. Some of the common washes are garment wash, stone wash, caustic wash, bleaching acid wash, sand wash and enzyme wash.
Machinery required : Washing machine, Hydro Extractor, Tumbler Drier, Store/ Chemicals
Quality is an important concept in all stages of garment production. To get the quality product, check and controls must be ensured in each stage of the production. This will also avoid all kinds of mistakes.
Prevention is better than cure and also do the things right at the first time. These will really bring an awareness in the production line. By any chance an alteration or a mistake in the garment is difficult to be rectified properly. For upkeep of quality, good housekeeping and cleanliness should be of top priority.
Presentation of a packed garment makes all the difference in sales. The real skill of the industry lies in this point. A well-tailored garment can be finished badly or a badly stitched garment can be presented properly. Garments can be folded as follows:
1. Stand up pack
2. Plat pack
3. Deadmen fold
4. Semi stand pack
Steam pressing with vacuum table, Dummy blowers, Shift folding tables, Stain removing guns.
In the garment export trade packing is an art and is a very important stage. If the presentation and packing is good, it will really attract customers and sales will be faster. Our ultimate aim must be to impress the buyer with quality product. While packing, ratios, size, colour, tables are to be observed and followed meticulously. As policy matters decision taking or making has to be done as early as possible. Delay in minutes/ hours will create problems and losses. Concentration, involvement and commitment will fetch real good foreign exchange to the entrepreneur and to the country in the international market.
All the departments in a clothing industry require administrative support for their operations to ensure orderly and systematic functioning. The procedure covers preparing orders to supplies, checking goods, timing and methods of stock taking, imports and exports, obtaining credits for returned goods and materials, issuing credit for customer returns, negotiating and issuing tenders for major projects and purchase of furniture and equipments.