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Chapter: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications - Insulin

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Pharmacology and Formulations of Insulin

Normal insulin secretion in the nondiabetic person falls into two categories: (i) insulin that is secreted in response to a meal and (ii) the background or basal insulin that is continually secreted between meals and during the nighttime hours.

PHARMACOLOGY AND FORMULATIONS

 

Normal insulin secretion in the nondiabetic person falls into two categories: (i) insulin that is secreted in response to a meal and (ii) the background or basal insulin that is continually secreted between meals and during the nighttime hours. The pancreatic response to a meal typically results in peak serum insulin levels of 60–80 mU/mL whereas basal serum insulin levels fall within the 5–15 mU/mL range (Galloway and Chance, 1994). Because of these vastly different insulin demands, considerable effort has been ex-pended to develop insulin formulations that meet the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic require-ments of each condition. More recently, insulin analogs and insulin analog formulations have been developed to improve pharmacokinetic and pharma-codynamic properties.

 

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