Social, emotional, and behavioural development
· starts smiling;
· becomes increasingly responsive socially.
·At 10mths shows separation anxiety when separated from parent and an increased wariness of strangers.
·By 10mths begins to wave ‘good-bye’.
·At 8mths begins to start to feed self using fingers.
·At 12mths will drink from a cup.
·At 18mths uses spoon to feed self.
·By 2yrs removes some clothes and will soon start to try to dress self.
Very variable. Some children are potty trained by 2yrs, but others can be much older when they develop this behaviour. Night-time dryness always takes longer. 10% of 5-year-olds still wet the bed at night.
·By 24mths children start to copy actions and activities that they see around them (e.g. feeding a doll, making tea, dusting, and cleaning).
·They progress in the 2nd year to play on their own or alongside peers in parallel play.
·From 3yrs they start to have interactive play, taking turns and following simple rules.
Cognition refers to higher mental function.
· thought processes are called pre-operational; children are at the centre of their world;
· ‘magical’ thinking and play with toys as if they were alive.
·Junior school age: thoughts become operational and thought processes are more practical and orderly.
Teenage years: formal operational thought has developed including abstract thought and complex reasoning.