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Chapter: Business Science - Managerial Behavior and Effectiveness - Environmental Issues in Managerial Effectiveness

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Organisational Processes

Organizational development (OD) it is a term used to encompass a collection of planned-change interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seek to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well being.

 Organisational Processes

 

Managerial Effectiveness Developed Through Organizational Interventions

 

—    Organizational development (OD) it is a term used to encompass a collection of planned-change interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seek to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well being.

 

OD Values

 

—    Respect for employees

 

—    Trust and support

 

—    Power equalization

 

—    Participation

 

OD Interventions Techniques

 

—    Sensitivity Training

 

—    Refer to a method of changing behaviour through unstructured group interaction.

 

—    The group is process-oriented, which means that individuals learn through observing and participating rather than being told.

 

—    The objectives of the T-groups are to provide the subjects with increased awareness of their own behaviour and how others perceive them, greater sensitivity to the behaviour of others, and increased understanding of group processes.

 

Results

 

—    Increased ability to empathize with other, improved listening skills, greater openness, increased tolerance of individual differences, and improved conflict resolution skills

 

 

 

Survey Feedback

 

—    One tool for assessing attitudes held by organizational members, identifying discrepancies among member perceptions, solving differences is the survey feedback approach.

 

—    The questionnaire typically asks members for their perceptions and attitudes on a broad range of topics, including decision making practices; communication effectiveness; coordination between units; and satisfaction with organization, job, peers, and their immediate supervisor.

 

Process Consultation

 

—    Managers often sense that their unit‘s performance can be improved, but they are unable to identify what can be improved and how it can be improved.

 

—    The purpose of process consultation is for an outside consultant to assist a client, usually a manager, ―to perceive, understand, and act upon process events‖ with which he or she must deal.

 

—    Consultants in PC are there to ―give the client ‗insight‘ into what is going on around him, within him, and between him and other people.‖ They do not solve the organization‘s problems.

 

—    Rather, the consultant is a guide or each who advises on the process to help the client solve his or her own problems.

 

Team Building

 

—    Team building can be applied within groups or at the inter group level where activities are interdependent.

 

—    The objective is to improve coordinative efforts of team members, which will result in increasing the group‘s performance.

 

—    The activities considered in team building typically include goal setting, development of interpersonal relations among team members, role analysis to clarify each member‘s role and responsibilities, and team process analysis.

 

Inter-group Development

 

—    Inter-group development seeks to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other.

 

—    Each group meet independently to develop lists of its perception of itself, the other group, and how it believes the other group perceives it.

 

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