Effectiveness Developed Through Organizational Interventions
development (OD) it is a term used to encompass a collection of planned-change
interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seek to improve
organizational effectiveness and employee well being.
a method of changing behaviour through unstructured group interaction.
is process-oriented, which means that individuals learn through observing and
participating rather than being told.
objectives of the T-groups are to provide the subjects with increased awareness
of their own behaviour and how others perceive them, greater sensitivity to the
behaviour of others, and increased understanding of group processes.
ability to empathize with other, improved listening skills, greater openness,
increased tolerance of individual differences, and improved conflict resolution
for assessing attitudes held by organizational members, identifying
discrepancies among member perceptions, solving differences is the survey
questionnaire typically asks members for their perceptions and attitudes on a
broad range of topics, including decision making practices; communication
effectiveness; coordination between units; and satisfaction with organization,
job, peers, and their immediate supervisor.
often sense that their unit‘s performance can be improved, but they are unable
to identify what can be improved and how it can be improved.
purpose of process consultation is for an outside consultant to assist a client,
usually a manager, ―to perceive, understand, and act upon process events‖ with
which he or she must deal.
in PC are there to ―give the client ‗insight‘ into what is going on around him,
within him, and between him and other people.‖ They do not solve the
the consultant is a guide or each who advises on the process to help the client
solve his or her own problems.
building can be applied within groups or at the inter group level where activities
objective is to improve coordinative efforts of team members, which will result
in increasing the group‘s performance.
activities considered in team building typically include goal setting,
development of interpersonal relations among team members, role analysis to
clarify each member‘s role and responsibilities, and team process analysis.
development seeks to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that
groups have of each other.
group meet independently to develop lists of its perception of itself, the
other group, and how it believes the other group perceives it.