Chapter: Business Science - Managerial Behavior and Effectiveness - Environmental Issues in Managerial Effectiveness

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Leader

"Leadership is a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential."

Leader

 

"Leadership is a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential."

 

Prof. Warren Bennis

 

Types of Leadership Style

 

      Autocratic:

 

–  Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else

 

–  High degree of dependency on the leader

 

Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff

 

May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively

 

      Democratic:

 

Encourages decision making

 

from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation

 

–  Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken

 

Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct

 

      Laissez-Faire:

 

‗Let it be‘ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all

 

Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important

 

 

–  Can be highly motivational,

 

as people have control over their working life

 

Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction

 

–  Relies on good team work

 

–  Relies on good interpersonal relations

 

      Paternalistic:

 

1.     Leader acts as a ‗father figure‘

 

2.     Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult

 

3.     Believes in the need to support staff

 

4.     Theories of Leadership

 

Early Theories:

 

Great Man Theories

 

      Leaders are exceptional people, born with innate qualities, destined to lead

 

      Term 'man' was intentional - concept was primarily male, military and Western Trait Theories

 

      Research on traits or qualities associated with leadership are numerous

 

      Traits are hard to measure. For example, how do we measure honesty or integrity? Leadership Traits

 

Group Exercise:

 

      Choose leaders YOU admire

 

      What personality traits and skills do they have?

 

Traits

 

      Adaptable to situations

 

      Alert to social environment

 

      Ambitious and achievement orientated

 

      Assertive

 

      Cooperative

 

      Decisive

 

 

      Dependable

 

      Dominant (desire to influence others)

 

      Energetic (high activity level)

 

      Persistent

 

      Self-confident

 

      Tolerant of stress

 

      Willing to assume responsibility

 

Skills

 

      Clever (intelligent)

 

      Conceptually skilled

 

      Creative

 

      Diplomatic and tactful

 

      Fluent in speaking

 

      Knowledgeable about group task

 

      Organised (administrative ability)

 

      Persuasive

 

      Socially skilled

 

Functional Theories (John Adair, Action Centred Leadership, 1970)

 

Leader is concerned with the interaction of 3 areas:

 

      Task – goal setting, methods and process

 

      Team – effective interaction/communication, clarify roles, team morale

 

      Individual – attention to behaviour, feelings, coaching, CPD

 

Behaviourist Theories (Blake and Mouton, Managerial grid, 1964)

 

         Leaders behaviour and actions, rather than their traits and skills e.g. production orientated or people orientated

 

 

         Different leadership behaviours categorised as ‗leadership styles‘ e.g. autocratic, persuasive, consultative, democratic

 

         Doesn‘t provide guide to effective leadership in different situations

 

Situational/contingency Leadership (Hersey-Blanchard, 1970/80)

 

Leadership style changes according to the 'situation‗ and in response to the individuals being managed – their competency and motivation

 

Transformational Theory (Bass and Avolio, 1994)

 

      Leaders inspire individuals, develop trust, and encourage creativity and personal growth

 

      Individuals develop a sense of purpose to benefit the group, organisation or society. This goes beyond their own self-interests and an exchange of rewards or recognition for effort or loyalty.

 

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