According to Koontz and O'Donnell, "Organization involves the grouping of activities necessary to accomplish goals and plans, the assignment of these activities to appropriate departments and the provision of authority, delegation and co-ordination."
Organization involves division of work among people whose efforts must be co-ordinated to achieve specific objectives and to implement pre-determined strategies.
NATURE OR CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZING
From the study of the various definitions given by different management experts we get the following information about the characteristics or nature of organization,
(1) Division of Work: Division of work is the basis of an organization. In other words, there can be no organization without division of work. Under division of work the entire work of business is divided into many departments .The work of every department is further sub-divided into sub-works. In this way each individual has to do the saran work repeatedly which gradually makes that person an expert.
Coordination: Under organizing different persons are assigned different works but the aim of all these persons happens to be the some - the attainment of the objectives of the enterprise. Organization ensures that the work of all the persons depends on each other’s work even though it happens to be different. The work of one person starts from where the work of another person ends. The non-completion of the work of one person affects the work of everybody. Therefore, everybody completes his work in time and does not hinder the work of others. It is thus, clear that it is in the nature of an organization to establish coordination among different works, departments and posts in the enterprise.
Plurality of Persons: Organization is a group of many persons who assemble to fulfill a common purpose. A single individual cannot create an organization.
Common Objectives: There are various parts of an organization with different functions to perform but all move in the direction of achieving a general objective.
Well-defined Authority and Responsibility: Under organization a chain is established between different posts right from the top to the bottom. It is clearly specified as to what will be the authority and responsibility of every post. In other words, every individual working in the organization is given some authority for the efficient work performance and it is also decided simultaneously as to what will be the responsibility of that individual in case of unsatisfactory work performance.
Organization is a Structure of Relationship: Relationship between persons working on different posts in the organization is decided. In other words, it is decided as to who will be the superior and who will be the subordinate. Leaving the top level post and the lowest level post everybody is somebody's superior and somebody's subordinate. The person working on the top level post has no superior and the person working on the lowest level post has no subordinate.
Organization is a Machine of Management: Organization is considered to be a machine of management because the efficiency of all the functions depends on an effective organization. In the absence of organization no function can be performed in a planned manner. It is appropriate to call organization a machine of management from another point of view. It is that machine in which no part can afford tube ill-fitting or non-functional. In other words, if the division of work is not done properly or posts are not created correctly the whole system of management collapses.
Organization is a Universal Process: Organization is needed both in business and non-business organizations. Not only this, organization will be needed where two or mom than two people work jointly. Therefore, organization has the quality of universality. (9) Organization is a Dynamic Process: Organization is related to people and the knowledge and experience of the people undergo a change. The impact of this change affects the various functions of the organizations. Thus, organization is not a process that can be decided for all times to come but it undergoes changes according to the needs. The example in this case can be the creation or abolition of a new post according to the need.