Moraxella is another genus of coccobacillary, Gram-negative rods that are usually pairedend to end. Some species require enriched media, such as blood or chocolate agar. Their morphology, fastidious growth, and positive oxidase reaction can result in confusion with Neisseria. This is particularly true for M. catarrhalis, which for many years was classifiedwith Neisseria. More recently it was called Branhamella catarrhalis, and it is an occa-sional cause of otitis media and lower respiratory tract infection. Both infections relate to the presence of M. catarrhalis in the normal oropharyngeal flora. With the exception of M. catarrhalis, which frequently produces β-lactamase, Moraxella species are generallysusceptible to penicillin.
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