MECHANISMS FOR CONTROL
1 INTRODUCTION TO GOVERNOR:
A centrifugal governor is a specific type of governor that controls the speed of an engine by regulating the amount of fuel (or working fluid) admitted, so as to maintain a near constant speed whatever the load or fuel supply conditions. It uses the principle of proportional control.
It is most obviously seen on steam engines where it regulates the admission of steam into the cylinder(s). It is also found on internal combustion engines and variously fuelled turbines, and in some modern striking clocks.
2 PRINCIPLE OF WORKING:
Power is supplied to the governor from the engine's output shaft by (in this instance) a belt or chain (not shown) connected to the lower belt wheel. The governor is connected to a throttle valve that regulates the flow of working fluid (steam) supplying the prime mover (prime mover not shown). As the speed of the prime mover increases, the central spindle of the governor rotates at a faster rate and the kinetic energy of the balls increases. This allows the two masses on lever arms to move outwards and upwards against gravity. If the motion goes far enough, this motion causes the lever arms to pull down on a thrust bearing, which moves a beam linkage, which reduces the aperture of a throttle valve. The rate of working-fluid entering the cylinder is thus reduced and the speed of the prime mover is controlled, preventing over speeding.
Mechanical stops may be used to limit the range of throttle motion, as seen near the masses in the image at right.
The direction of the lever arm holding the mass will be along the vector sum of the reactive centrifugal force vector and the gravitational force.
3 CLASSIFICATION OF GOVERNORS:
Governors are classified based upon two different principles. These are:
1. Centrifugal governors
2. Inertia governors
Centrifugal governors are further classified as
(4) Height of governor
It is the vertical distance between the centre of the governor halls and the point of intersection between the upper arms on the axis of spindle is known as governor height. It is generally denoted by h.
(5) Sleeve lift
The vertical distance the sleeve travels due to change in the equilibrium Speed is called the sleeve lift. The vertical downward travel may be termed as Negative lift
This is an extreme case of sensitiveness. When the equilibrium speed is constant for all radii of rotation of the balls within the working range, the governor is said to be in isochronism. This means that the difference between the maximum and minimum equilibrium speeds is zero and the sensitiveness shall be ininite.
Stability is the ability to maintain a desired engine speed without Fluctuating. Instability results in hunting or oscillating due to over correction. Excessive stability results in a dead-beat governor or one that does not correct sufficiently for load changes
The phenomenon of continuous fluctuation of the engine speed above and below the mean speed is termed as hunting. This occurs in over- sensitive or isochronous governors. Suppose an isochronous governor is fitted to an engine running at a steady load. With a slight increase of load, the speed will fall and the sleeve will immediately fall to its lowest position. This shall open the control valve wide and excess supply of energy will be given, with the result that the speed will rapidly increase and the sleeve will rise to its higher position. As a result of this movement of the sleeve, the control valve will be cut off; the supply to the engine and the speed will again fall, the cycle being repeated indefinitely. Such a governor would admit either more or less amount of fuel and so effect would be that the engine would hunt.
A governor is said to be sensitive, if its change of speed s from no Load to full load may be as small a fraction of the mean equilibrium speed as possible and the corresponding sleeve lift may be as large as possible.
ω1 = max. Equilibrium speed ω2 = min. equilibrium speed
ω = mean equilibrium speed = (ω1+ ω2)/2
Therefore sensitiveness = (ω1- ω2)/2
5 CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALITIES OF CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR:
For satisfactory performance and working a centrifugal governor should possess The following qualities.
a. On the sudden removal of load its sleeve should reach at the top most position at Once.
b. Its response to the change of speed should be fast.
c. Its sleeve should float at some intermediate position under normal operating Conditions.
d. At the lowest position of sleeve the engine should develop maximum power.
e. It should have sufficient power, so that it may be able to exert the required force
At the sleeve to operate the control & mechanism
6 WATT GOVERNOR:
7 PORTER GOVERNOR:
8 PROELL GOVERNOR:
9 HARTNELL GOVERNOR:
10 HARTUNG GOVERNOR:
11 WILSON HARTNELL GOVERNOR:
12 PICKERING GOVERNOR:
13 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FLYWHEEL AND A GOVERNOR:
14 GYROSCOPE AND ITS APPLICATIONS
A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum. A mechanical gyroscope is essentially a spinning wheel or disk whose axle is free to take any orientation. This orientation changes much less in response to a given external torque than it would without the large angular momentum associated with the gyroscope's high rate of spin. Since external torque is minimized by mounting the device in gimbals, its orientation remains nearly fixed, regardless of any motion of the platform on which it is mounted. Gyroscopes based on other operating principles also Exit, such as the electronic, microchip-packaged MEMS gyroscope devices found in consumer electronic devices, solid state ring lasers, fiber optic gyroscopes and the extremely sensitive quantum gyroscope. Applications of gyroscopes include navigation (INS) when magnetic compasses do not work (as in the Hubble telescope) or are not precise enough (as in ICBMs) or for the stabilization of flying vehicles like radio-controlled helicopters or UAVs. Due to higher precision, gyroscopes are also used to maintain direction in tunnel mining.
(20) Description and diagram:
Diagram of a gyro wheel. Reaction arrows about the output axis (blue) correspond to forces applied about the input axis (green), and vice versa. Within mechanical systems or devices, a conventional gyroscope is a mechanism comprising a rotor journal led to spin about one axis, the journals of the rotor being mounted in an inner gimbal or ring, the inner gimbal is journal led for oscillation in an outer gimbal which is journal led in another gimbal. So basically there are three gimbals. The outer gimbal or ring which is the gyroscope frame is mounted so as to pivot about an axis in its own plane determined by the support. This outer gimbal possesses one degree of rotational freedom and its axis possesses none. The next inner gimbal is mounted in the gyroscope frame (outer gimbal) so as to pivot about an axis in its own plane that is always perpendicular to the pivotal axis of the gyroscope frame (outer gimbal). This inner gimbal has two degrees of rotational freedom. Similarly, next innermost gimbal is attached to the inner gimbal which has three degree of rotational freedom and its axis posses two. The axle of the spinning wheel defines the spin axis. The rotor is journaled to spin about an axis which is always perpendicular to the axis of the innermost gimbal. So, the rotor possesses four degrees of rotational freedom and its axis possesses three. The wheel responds to a force applied about the input axis by a reaction force about the output axis.
The behavior of a gyroscope can be most easily appreciated by consideration of the front wheel of a bicycle. If the wheel is leaned away from the vertical so that the top of the wheel moves to the left, the forward rim of the wheel also turns to the left. In other words, rotation on one axis of the turning wheel produces rotation of the third axis.
15 EFFECT OF THE GYROSCOPIC COUPLE ON AN AERO PLANE
16 EFFECT OF GYROSCOPIC COUPLE
This couple is, therefore, to raise the nose and dip the tail of the aero plane.
1. When the aero plane takes a right turn under similar Conditions as discussed above, the effect of the reactive Couple will be to dip the nose and raise the tail of the aero plane.
2.When the engine or propeller rotates in anticlockwise direction when viewed from the rear or tail end and the aero plane takes a left turn, then the effect of reactive gyroscopic couple will be to dip the nose and raise the tail of the aero plane.
3.When the aero plane takes a right turn under similar Conditions as mentioned in note 2 above, the effect of Reactive gyroscopic couple will be to raise the nose and dip the of the aero plane.
4.When the engine or propeller rotates in clockwise direction when viewed from the front and the aero plane takes a left turn, then the effect of reactive gyroscopic couple will be to raise the tail and dip the nose of the aero plane.
5. When the aero plane takes a right turn under similar conditions as mentioned in note4 above, the effect of reactive gyroscopic couple will be to raise the nose and dip the tail of the aero plane.
17 EFFECT OF GYROSCOPIC COUPLE ON SHIP
The top and front views of a naval ship are shown in fig. The fore end of the ship is called bow and the rear end is known as stern or aft. The left hand and the right hand sides of the ship, when viewed from the stern are called port and star board respectively. We shall now discuss the effect of gyroscopic couple in the naval ship in the following three cases:
2. Pitching, and
EFFECT OF GYROSCO PI C COUPLE O N ANAVA LSHIP DU RI N G PI T CHI N G& STEERING
Steering is the turning of a complete ship in a curve towards left or right, while it moves forward, considers the ship taking a left turn, and rotor rotates in the clockwise direction when viewed from the stern, as shown in Fig. below. The effect of gyroscopic couple on a naval ship during steering taking left or right turn may be obtained in the similar way as for an aero plane as discussed in Art.
When the rotor of the ship rotates in the clockwise direction
when viewed from the stern, it will have its angular momentum vector in the direction ox as shown in Fig. A1. As the ship steers to the left, the active gyroscopic couple will change the angular momentum vector from ox to ox’. The vector xx’ now represents the active gyroscopic couple and is perpendicular to ox. Thus the plane of active gyroscopic couple is perpendicular to xx’ and its direction in the axis OZ for left hand turn is clockwise as shown in Fig below. The reactive gyroscopic couple of the same magnitude will act in the opposite direction (i.e in anticlockwise direction). The effect of this reactive gyroscopic couple is to raise the bow and lower the stern.
1. When the ship steers to the right under similar condition as discussed above, the effect of the reactive gyroscopic couple, as shown in Fig. B1, will be to raise the stern and lower the bow.
2. When the rotor rotates in the anticlockwise direction, when viewed from the stern and the ship is steering to the left, then the effect of reactive gyroscopic couple will be to lower the bow and raise the stern.
3. When the ship is steering to the right under similar conditions as discussed in note 2 above, then the effect of reactive gyroscopic couple will be to raise the bow and lower the stern.
4. When the rotor rotates in the clockwise direction when viewed from the bow or fore end and the ship is steering to the left, then the effect of reactive gyroscopic couple will be to raise the stern and lower the bow.
5. When the ship is steering to the right under similar conditions as discussed in note 4 above, then the effect of reactive gyroscopic couple will be to raise the bow and lower the stern.
6. The effect of the reactive gyroscopic couple on a boat propelled by a turbine taking left or right turn.
2 Effect of Gyro scop i c cou p le on a Naval S h i p d u ri n g Rolling:
We know that, for the effect of gyroscopic couple to occur, the axis of precession should always be perpendicular to the axis of spin. If, however, the axis of precession becomes parallel to the axis of spin, there will be no effect of the gyroscopic couple acting on the body of the ship. In case of rolling of a ship, the axis of precession (i.e. longitudinal axis) is always parallel to the axis of spin for all positions. Hence, there is no effect of the gyroscopic couple acting on the body of a ship.
18 EFFECT OF GYROSCOPIC COUPLE ON A 4- WHEEL DRIVE :
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