INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTING
Business entities and other organisations carry on activities which involve exchange of money or money’s worth or economic resources. Where the volume of these activities are large in number it is necessary that these are recorded for the purpose of taking important decisions as to whether the activities are viable, gainful and are to be continued or not. Information about the business and other organisations is required not only to the proprietors and managers of business and other organisations but also to various other interested users such as the government, investors, customers, employees and researchers.
Raising and utilising of finance for various purposes must be recorded systematically, scientifically and uniformly. It is very important because finance is the most important resource next to the human element for any economic activity. Hence, there is a need for principles, methods and procedures to be followed to record all these information and to derive from these information, the feasibility and benefit of the activities carried out. Accountancy provides the basic theory, principles and methods to be followed to account for all financial activities taking place in an organisation. Accounting the financial activities in a systematic way helps in ascertaining the efficiency of performance of these activities and provides data about the state of affairs of the organisation for further analysis and planning.
Accounting is the language of business. The most important function of a language is to facilitate communication. The information about business entities regarding their operating performance and financial status can be obtained from the financial information recorded in the accounting records. This information is communicated to the interested users of business information such as proprietors, management, investors, customers and the government.