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Industrial health and hygiene Meaning

The Joint I.L.O AND W.H.O committee on organizational health held in 1950 defined organizational health as

Industrial health and hygiene Meaning


The Joint I.L.O AND W.H.O committee on organizational health held in 1950 defined organizational health as


Ø   The promotion and maintenance of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations.


Ø   Preventing among workers of ill health caused by the working conditions.


Ø   Protection of workers in their employment from risk factors adverse to health.


Ø   Placing and maintenance of worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physical and psychological equipment.


Importance of Industrial Health


Ø   As the large member of workers spend a great deal of their time in an organization, their environment is not usually conducive to a health life.


Ø   Malnutrition, insanity and psychological conditions and the stress and strain under which they work is very injurious to their health.


Ø   The symptoms of bad health are a high rate of absenteeism and turnover and indiscipline, poor performance and low productivity.


Ø   Industrial health programmes are very useful for reduction in the rate of labour turnover, absenteeism, accidents, lower performance and occupational diseases.




Sections 11 to 20 of the Act contain certain provisions intended to ensure that the conditions under .which work is carried on in factories do not affect the health of the workers injuriously. The summary of the provisions are explained below :


Summary of the provisions of the Factories Act. relating -to the health of workers are stated below.


1. Cleanliness. Every factory shall be kept clean and free from dirt, and the outflow of drains etc. The floors must be cleaned. Drainage shall be provided. Inside walls, partitions and ceilings must be repainted at least once in five years. When washable water paint is used they must be painted once every three years and washed at least every period of six months.-Sec. 11,' as amended in 1976.


2.    Disposal of wastes and effluents. The waste materials produced from the manufacturing process must be effectively disposed off-Sec. 12.


3.  Ventilation 'and Temperature. There must be provision for adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air: The temperaturemust be kept at a comfortable level. Hot parts of machines must be'separated and insulated.-Sec. 13.


4. Dust and Fume. If the .manufacturing process used. gives off injurious or offensive dust and fume steps must be taken so that they are not inhaled or accumulated. The exhaust fumes of internal combustion engines must be conducted outside the factory.--Sec. 14.


5. Artificial humidification. The water used for this purpose must be pure. It must be. taken from some source of drinking water supply. The State Government can frame rules .regarding the process of humidification etc.-8ec. 15.




6. OverCrowding. There must be no overcrowding in a factory. In factories existing before the commencement of the Act there must be at least 350 c.ft. (~r 55 cubic metres) of space per worker. For factories built afterwards, there must be at least 500 c.ft. (or 75 cubic metres) of space. In calculating the space, an account is to be taken of space above 14 ft. (or 5 metres) from the floor.-Sec. 16.


7. Lighting. Factories must be well lighted. Effective measures must be adopted to prevent glare or formation of shadows which might cause eyestrain.-sec. 17.


8.   Drinking water. Arrangements must be made to provide a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. All supply' points of such water must be marked "drinking water". No such points shall be within 20 ft. (or 7.5 metres) of any latrine, washing place etc. Factories employing more than 250 workers must cool the water during the hot weather.-Sec. 18.




Latrines and Urinals. Every factory must provide' sufficient number of latrines and urinals. There must be separate provision for male and female workers. Latrine and urinals must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition. In factories. employing more than 250 workers, they shall be of prescribed sanitary types.--sec. 19.


1 Industrial Hygiene:


Protecting the labour working in all the occupations from diseases


1.Maintaining the highest standard of their physical, mental and social welfare


2.Protecting the workers from diseases and accidents caused by their working conditions and its ill effects on their health


3.Making adjustments between the work and the nature of individual


Principles of Industrial Hygiene:


Ø   Environmental health hazards in the work place can be measured quantitatively


Ø   Continuous surveillance


Ø   Occupational exposure limits be adhered to


Ø   The health effects of hazards in the workplace usually show a dose-response relationship

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