Industrial health and hygiene Meaning
I.L.O AND W.H.O committee on organizational health held in 1950 defined
organizational health as
promotion and maintenance of physical, mental and social well-being of workers
in all occupations.
among workers of ill health caused by the working conditions.
of workers in their employment from risk factors adverse to health.
and maintenance of worker in an occupational environment adapted to his
physical and psychological equipment.
Importance of Industrial Health
Ø As the
large member of workers spend a great deal of their time in an organization,
their environment is not usually conducive to a health life.
insanity and psychological conditions and the stress and strain under which
they work is very injurious to their health.
symptoms of bad health are a high rate of absenteeism and turnover and
indiscipline, poor performance and low productivity.
health programmes are very useful for reduction in the rate of labour turnover,
absenteeism, accidents, lower performance and occupational diseases.
PROVISIONS REGARDING THE HEALTH
11 to 20 of the Act contain certain provisions intended to ensure that the
conditions under .which work is carried on in factories do not affect the
health of the workers injuriously. The summary of the provisions are explained
of the provisions of the Factories Act. relating -to the health of workers are
1. Cleanliness. Every factory shall be kept
clean and free from dirt, and the outflow of drains etc. The floors must be cleaned. Drainage shall be
provided. Inside walls, partitions and ceilings must be repainted at least once
in five years. When washable water paint is used they must be painted once
every three years and washed at least every period of six months.-Sec. 11,' as
amended in 1976.
2. Disposal of wastes and effluents. The waste
materials produced from the manufacturing
process must be effectively disposed off-Sec. 12.
3. Ventilation 'and Temperature. There
must be provision for adequate ventilation
by the circulation of fresh air: The temperaturemust be kept at a
comfortable level. Hot parts of machines must be'separated and insulated.-Sec.
4. Dust and Fume. If the .manufacturing process
used. gives off injurious or offensive dust
and fume steps must be taken so that they are not inhaled or accumulated. The
exhaust fumes of internal combustion engines must be conducted outside the
5. Artificial humidification. The water
used for this purpose must be pure. It must be. taken from some source of drinking water supply. The State
Government can frame rules .regarding the process of humidification etc.-8ec.
6. OverCrowding. There must be no overcrowding in
a factory. In factories existing before
the commencement of the Act there must be at least 350 c.ft. (~r 55 cubic
metres) of space per worker. For factories built afterwards, there must be at
least 500 c.ft. (or 75 cubic metres) of space. In calculating the space, an
account is to be taken of space above 14 ft. (or 5 metres) from the floor.-Sec.
7. Lighting. Factories must be well lighted.
Effective measures must be adopted to prevent
glare or formation of shadows which might cause eyestrain.-sec. 17.
water. Arrangements must be made to provide a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. All supply'
points of such water must be marked "drinking water". No such points
shall be within 20 ft. (or 7.5 metres) of any latrine, washing place etc.
Factories employing more than 250 workers must cool the water during the hot
Latrines and Urinals. Every
factory must provide' sufficient number of latrines and urinals. There must be separate provision for male and female
workers. Latrine and urinals must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition. In
factories. employing more than 250 workers, they shall be of prescribed
sanitary types.--sec. 19.
1 Industrial Hygiene:
the labour working in all the occupations from diseases
the highest standard of their physical, mental and social welfare
the workers from diseases and accidents caused by their working conditions and
its ill effects on their health
adjustments between the work and the nature of individual
Principles of Industrial Hygiene:
health hazards in the work place can be measured quantitatively
exposure limits be adhered to
health effects of hazards in the workplace usually show a dose-response