1. What is meant by FACTS?
FACTS devices are made by advanced power electronic control equipments. The flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) give solutions to the problems and limitations which were introduced in the power system with the introduction of power electronics based control for reactive power.
2. What is the need for reactive power?
The reactive power is essential for the operation of electromagnetic energy devices; it provides required coupling fields for energy devices.
3. What is reactive power?
The reactive power flows from load to source. The average value for reactive power is zero. It does not result in any active power consumption.
Unit: Volt Ampere Reactive (VAR)
4. What are the sources of reactive power?
Synchronous generator (it can generate both real and reactive power)
5. Main objectives of FACTS?
The power transfer capability of transmission system is to be increased.
The power flow is to be kept over designated routes.
6. Who implemented the FACTS concept? For what?
The concept of FACTS was first defined in 1988 by N.G.Hingorani. It controls the interrelated parameters which are involved in power system operation such as series and shunt impedance, current, voltage and phase angle. Also it damps the oscillations at various frequencies below the rated frequency.
7. What are the types of FACTS devices?
SVC - Static Var Compensator
TCSC - Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor UPFC - Unified Power Flow Controller
IPFC - Interline Power Flow Controller
SSSC - Static Synchronous Series Compensator
SSC - Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)
8. What are the types of FACTS controllers?
Combined series-series controllers
Combined series-shunt controllers
9. Where the first STATCOM was implemented?
10. Where the first UPFC was implemented?
In 1998 installation of the first unified power flow controller (UPFC) was completed at the Inez Substations owned by American Electrical Power (AEP). It represents the first controller capable of providing complete control of all the three basic transmission system parameters that is voltage, line impedance, phase angle.