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Chapter: Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System - Introduction

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Importants Short Questions and Answers: Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System(FACTS) - Introduction

Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System - Introduction - Importants Short Questions and Answers: Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System(FACTS) - Introduction

INTRODUCTION

 

1. What is meant by FACTS?

 

FACTS devices are made by advanced power electronic control equipments. The flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) give solutions to the problems and limitations which were introduced in the power system with the introduction of power electronics based control for reactive power.

 

2. What is the need for reactive power?

 

The reactive power is essential for the operation of electromagnetic energy devices; it provides required coupling fields for energy devices.

 

3. What is reactive power?

 

The reactive power flows from load to source. The average value for reactive power is zero. It does not result in any active power consumption.

 

Unit: Volt Ampere Reactive (VAR)

 

4. What are the sources of reactive power?

Capacitor

Synchronous generator (it can generate both real and reactive power)

 

5. Main objectives of FACTS?

The power transfer capability of transmission system is to be increased.


The power flow is to be kept over designated routes.

 

6. Who implemented the FACTS concept? For what?

 

The concept of FACTS was first defined in 1988 by N.G.Hingorani. It controls the interrelated parameters which are involved in power system operation such as series and shunt impedance, current, voltage and phase angle. Also it damps the oscillations at various frequencies below the rated frequency.

 

7. What are the types of FACTS devices?

 

SVC - Static Var Compensator

 

TCSC - Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor UPFC - Unified Power Flow Controller

IPFC - Interline Power Flow Controller

 

SSSC - Static Synchronous Series Compensator

 

SSC - Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)

 

8. What are the types of FACTS controllers?


Series controller


Shunt controller


Combined series-series controllers


Combined series-shunt controllers


9. Where the first STATCOM was implemented?

 Tennesee Valley Authority (TVA) installed the first static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) in 1955 to strengthen transmission line ties between its Sullivan substation and the rest of its network. It reduces the need of additional transformer bank and avoiding more labors.

 

10. Where the first UPFC was implemented?

 

In 1998 installation of the first unified power flow controller (UPFC) was completed at the Inez Substations owned by American Electrical Power (AEP). It represents the first controller capable of providing complete control of all the three basic transmission system parameters that is voltage, line impedance, phase angle.

 

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