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Chapter: Solid State Drives : Synchronous Motor Drives

Important Short Questions and Answers: Synchronous Motor Drives

Solid State Drives - Synchronous Motor Drives - Important Short Questions and Answers: Synchronous Motor Drives



1. Give the four modes of operation of a Scherbius drive

The four modes of operation of static Scherbius drive are,

Sub synchronous motoring.

Sub synchronous regeneration

Super synchronous regeneration


2.  Give the use of synchronous motors.

Synchronous motors were mainly used in constant speed applications. The development of semiconductor variable frequency sources, such as inverters and cycloconverters, has allowed their use in draft fane, main line traction, servo drives, etc.


3.  How are the stator and rotor of the synchronous motor supplied?

The stator of the synchronous motor is supplied from a thyristor power converter capable of providing a variable frequency supply. The rotor, depending upon the situation, may be constructed with slip rings, where it conforms to a conventional rotor. It is supplied with D.C. through slip rings. Sometimes rotor may also be free from sliding contacts (slip rings), in which case the rotor is fed from a rectifier rotating with rotor.




4. What is the difference between an induction motor and synchronous motor?

An induction motor operates at lagging power factor and hence the converter supplying the same must invariable is a force commutated one. A synchronous motor, on the other hand, can be operated at any power factor by controlling the field current.


5.List out the commonly used synchronous motors. Commonly used synchronous motors are,

a.     Wound field synchronous motors.

b.     Permanent magnet synchronous motors

c.      Synchronous reluctance synchronous motors.

d.     Hysterias motors.


6. Mention the main difference between the wound field and permanent magnet motors.

When a wound filed motor is started as an induction motor, D.C. field is kept off. In case of a permanent magnet motor, the field cannot be 'turned off’.


7. Give the advantages and applications of PMSM.

The advantages of PMSM are,

a. High efficiency            

b. High power factor

c. Low sensitivity to supply voltage variations.

The application of PMSM is that it is preferred of industrial applications with large duty cycle such as pumps, fans and compressors.


8. Give the uses of a hysteresis synchronous motor.

Small hysteresis motors are extensively used in tape recorders, office equipment and fans. Because of the low starting current, it finds application in high inertia application such as gyrocompasses and small centrifuges.


9. Mention the two modes employed in variable frequency control

Variable frequency control may employ and of the two modes. a. True synchronous mode b. Self-controlled mode

10. Define load commutation


Commutation of thyristors by induced voltages pf load is known as load commutation.


11. List out the advantages of load commutation over forced commutation.

Load commutation has a number of advantages over forced commutation

It does not require commutation circuits

Frequency of operation can be higher

It can operate at power levels beyond the capability of forced commutation.


12. Give some application of load commutated inverter fed synchronous motor drive.

Some prominent applications of load commutated inverter fed synchronous motor drive are high speed and high power drives for compressors, blowers, conveyers, steel rolling mills, main-line traction and aircraft test facilities.


13. How the machine operation is performed in self-controlled mode?

For machine operation in the self -controlled mode, rotating filed speed should be the same as rotor speed. This condition is relaised by making frequency of voltage induced in the armature. Firning pulses are therefore generated either by comparison of motor terminal voltages or by rotor position sensors.


14. What is meant by margin angle of commutation?

The difference between the lead angle of firing and the overlap angle is called the margin angle of commutation. If this angle of the thyristor, commutation failure occurs. Safe commutation is assured if this angle has a minimum value equal to the turn off angle f the thyristor.


15. What are the disadvantages of VSI fed synchronous motor drive?

VSI synchronous motor drives might impose fewer problems both on machine as well as on the system design. A normal VSI with 180° conduction of thyristors required forced commutation and load commutation is not possible.


16. How is PNM inverter supplied in VSI fed synchronous motor?

When a PWM inverter is used, two cases may arise the inverter may be fed from a constant D.C. source in which case regeneration is straight forward. The D.C. supply to the inverter may be obtained form a diode rectifier. In this case an additional phase controlled converter is required on the line side.


17. What is D.C. link converter and cycloconverter?

D.C. link converter is a two stage conversion device which provides a variable voltage, variable frequency supply.

Cycloconverter is a single stage conversion device which provides a Variable voltage, variable frequency supply.


18. What are the disadvantages of cycloconverter?

A cycloconverter requires large number of thyristors and ts control circuitry is complex. Converter grade thyristors are sufficient but the cost of the converter is high.



19. What are the applications of cycloconverter?

A cycloconverter drive is attractive for law speed operation and is frequently employed in large, low speed reversing mils requiring rapid acceleration and deceleration. Typical applications are large gearless drives, e.g. drives for reversing mills, mine heists, etc.


20. Give the application of CSI fed synchronous motor.

Application of this type of drive is in gas turbine starting pumped hydroturbine starting, pump and blower drives, etc.


21. What are the disadvantages of machine commutation?

The disadvantages of machine commutation are,

a.Limitation on the speed range. 

b. The machine size is large

c. Due to overexciting it is underutilized.


22.            What is the use of an auxiliary motor?

Sometimes when the power is small an auxiliary motor can be used to run up the synchronous motor to the desired speed.


23. What are the advantages of brushless D.C. motor?

The brushless D.C. motor is in fact an inverter-fed self controlled permanent synchronous motor drive. The advantages of brushless D.C. motor are low cost, simplicity reliability and good performance.


24. When can the synchronous motor be load commutated?

When the synchronous motor operates at a leading power factor thyristors of load side converter can be commutated by the motor induced voltages same way as the thyristors of a line commutated converter are commutated by line voltages.



25.            What are the characteristics of self controlled mode operated synchronous motor?

a) It operates at like dc motor also commutator less motor.

b) These machines have better stability behavior.

c) Do not have oscillatory behavior.


26.            What are the characteristics of true synchronus mode operated synchronous motor?

The motor behaves like conventional synchronous motor i.e) hunting oscillations exists.

The change in frequency is slow enough for rotor to truck the changes.

Multi motor operation is possible here.



27. What is meant by sub synchronous speed operation?

 The sub synchronous speed operation means the SRIM speed can be controlled below the synchronous speed. i.e) the slip power is fed back to the supply.


28. What is meant by super synchronous speed operation?

 The super synchronous speed operation means the SRIM speed can be controlled above the synchronous speed. i.e) the supply is fed back to the rotor side.


29. What are the two types of static scherbius system?

 a) DC link static scherbius system

 b) Cyclo converter scherbius system


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