1. What is meant by electrical drives?
Systems employed for motion control are called drives and they employ any of the prime movers such as diesel or petrol engines, gas or steam turbines, hydraulic motors and electric motors for supplying mathematical energy for motion control. Drives employing electric motion are called electric drives.
2. What are the requirements of an electric drive?
Stable operation should be assured.
The drive should have good transient response
3. Specify the functions of power modulator.
Power modulator performs one or more of the following four functions.
a. Modulates flow of power form the source to the motor in such a manner that motor is imparted speed-torque characteristics required by the load.
b. During transient operations, such as starting, braking and speed reversal, it restricts source and motor currents within permissible values; excessive current drawn from source may overload it or may cause a voltage dip.
4. Mention the different types of drives.
1) Group drive
2) Individual drive
3) Multimotor drive
5.List the different types of electrical drives.
1) dc drives
2) ac drives
6. What are the advantages of electric drives?
They have flexible control characteristics. the steady state and dynamic characteristics of electrical drives can be shaped to satisfy load requirements.
1) Drives can be provided with automatic fault detection systems, programmable logic controllers and computers can be employed to automatically ctrl the drive operations in a desired sequence.
2) They are available in which range of torque, speed and power.
3) It can operate in all the four quadrants of speed-torque plane. Electric braking gives smooth deceleration and increases life of the equipment compared to other forms of braking.
4) Control gear required for speed control, starting and braking is usually simple and easy to operate.
7. What are the functions performed by electric drives?
Various functions performed by electric drives include the following.
a. Driving fans, ventilators, compressors and pumps etc.
b. Lifting goods by hoists and cranes
c. Imparting motion to conveyors in factories, mines and warehouses and
d. Running excavators and escalators, electric locomotives, trains, cars, trolley buses, lifts and drums winders etc.
8. What are the disadvantages of electric drives?
The disadvantages of electric drives are
a. Electric drives system is tied only up to the electrified area.
b. The condition arising under the short circuits, leakage from conductors and breakdown of overhead conductor may lead to fatal accidents.
c. Failure in supply for a few minutes may paralyses the whole system.
9. What are the advantages of group drive over individual drive?
The advantages of group drive over individual drive are
a. Initial cost: Initial cost of group drive is less as compared to that of the individual drive.
b. Sequence of operation: Group drive system is useful because all the operations are stopped simultaneously.
c. Space requirement: Less space is required in group drive as compared to individual drive.
d. Low maintenance cost: It requires little maintenance as compared to individual drive.
10. What the group drive is not used extensively.
Although the initial cost of group drive is less but yet this system is not used extensively because of following disadvantages.
a. Power factor: Group drive has low power factor
b. Efficiency: Group drive system when used and if all the machines are not working together the main motor shall work at very much reduced load.
c. Reliability: In group drive if the main motor fails whole industry will come to stand still.
d. Flexibility: Such arrangement is not possible in group drive i.e., this arrangement is not suitable for the place where flexibility is the prime factor.
e. Speed: Group drive does not provide constant speed.
f. Types of machines: Group drive is not suitable fro driving heavy machines such as cranes, lifts and hoists etc.
11. Write short notes on individual electric drives.
In individual drive, each individual machine is driven by a separate motor. This motor also imparts motion to various other parts of the machine. Examples of such machines are single spindle drilling machines (Universal motor is used) and lathes. In a lathe, the motor rotates the spindle, moves the feed and also with the help of gears, transmits motion to lubricating and cooling pumps. A three phase squirrel cage induction motor is used as the drive. In many such applications the electric motor forms an integral part of the machine.
12. Mention the different factors for the selection of electric drives?
1) Steady state operation requirements.
2) Transient operation requirements.
3) Requirements related to the source.
4) Capital and running cost, maintenance needs life.
5) Space and weight restriction.
6) Environment and location.
13. Mention the parts of electrical drives.
1) Electrical motors and load.
2) Power modulator
4) Control unit
5) Sensing unit
14. Mention the applications of electrical drives
· Paper mills
· Electric traction Cement mills
· Steel mills
15. Mention the types of enclosures
Screen projected type
Drip proof type
Totally enclosed type
16. Mention the different types of classes of duty
Continuous duty, Discontinuous duty, Short time duty, intermittent duty.
17. What is meant by regenerative braking?
Regenerative braking occurs when the motor speed exceeds the synchronous speed. In this case the IM runs as the induction m\c is converting the mechanical power into electrical power which is delivered back to the electrical system. This method of braking is known as regenerative braking.
18. What is meant by dynamic braking?
Dynamic braking of electric motors occurs when the energy stored in the rotating mass is dissipated in an electrical resistance. This requires a motor to operate as a gen. to convert the stored energy into electrical.
19. What is meant by plugging?
It is one method of braking of IM. When phase sequence of supply of the motor running at the speed is reversed by interchanging connections of any two phases of stator with respect to supply terminals, operation shifts from motoring to plugging region.
20. What is critical speed?
It is the speed that separates continuous conduction from discontinuous conduction mode.
21. Which braking is suitable for reversing the motor?
Plugging is suitable for reversing the motor.
22. Define equivalent current method
The motor selected should have a current rating more than or equal to the current. It is also necessary to check the overload of the motor. This method of determining the power rating of the motor is known as equivalent current method.
23. Define cooling time constant
It is defined as the ratio between C and A. Cooling time constant is denoted as Tau. Tau = C/A
Where C=amount of heat required to raise the temp of the motor body by 1 degree Celsius A=amount of heat dissipated by the motor per unit time per degree Celsius.
24. What are the methods of operation of electric drives?
Acceleration including starting Deceleration including starting
25. Define four quadrant operations.
The motor operates in two mode: motoring and braking. In motoring, it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy which supports its motion. In braking, it works as a generator, converting mathematical energy into electrical energy and thus opposes the motion. Motor can provide motoring and braking operations for both forward and reverse directions.
26. What is meant by mechanical characteristics?
The curve is drawn between speed and torque. This characteristic is called mechanical characteristics.
27. Mention the types of braking
Regenerative braking Dynamic braking
28. What are the advantage and disadvantages of D.C. drives?
The advantages of D.C. drives are,
a. Adjustable speed
b. Good speed regulation
c. Frequent starting, braking and reversing.
The disadvantage of D.C. drives is the presence of a mechanical commutator which limits the maximum power rating and the speed.
29. Give some applications of D.C. drives.
The applications of D.C. drives are,
a. Rolling mills
b. Paper mills
c. Mine winders
e. Machine tools
g. Printing presses
i. Textile mils
30. Why the variable speed applications are dominated by D.C. drives?
The variable speed applications are dominated by D.C. drives because of lower cost, reliability and simple control.