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Object Oriented Programming and Data Structure - Linear Data Structures - Important Short Questions and Answers: Linear Data Structures

**1. Write down the definition of data structures? **

A data
structure is a mathematical or logical way of organizing data in the memory
that consider not only the items stored but also the relationship to each other
and also it is characterized by accessing functions.

**2. Binary Heap **

The
implementation we will use is known as a binary heap. Its use is so common for
priority queue implementations that when the word heap is used without a
qualifier

**Structure Property**

A heap is
a binary tree that is completely filled, with the possible exception of the
bottom level, which is filled from left to right. Such a tree is known as a complete
binary tree

**3. Define Algorithm?**

Algorithm
is a solution to a problem independent of programming language. It consist of
set of finite steps which, when carried out for a given set of inputs, produce
the corresponding output and terminate in a finite time.

**4. ****What are the features of an efficient algorithm?**

• Free of
ambiguity

• Efficient
in execution time

• Concise
and compact

• Completeness

• Definiteness

• Finiteness

**5. ****List down any four applications of data structures?**

·
Compiler design

·
Operating System

·
Database Management system

·
Network analysis

**6. What is meant by an abstract data type (ADT)?**

An ADT is
a set of operation. A useful tool for specifying the logical properties of a
datatype is the abstract data type.ADT refers to the basic mathematical concept
that defines the datatype. Eg.Objects such as list, set and graph along their
operations can be viewed as ADT's.

**7. What are the operations of ADT?**

Union,
Intersection, size, complement and find are the various operations of ADT.

**8. What is meant by list ADT?**

List ADT
is a sequential storage structure. General list of the form a1, a2, a3.…., an
and the size of the list is 'n'. Any element in the list at the position I is
defined to be ai, ai+1 the successor of ai and ai-1 is the predecessor of ai.

**9. What are the two parts of ADT?**

• Value
definition

• Operator
definition

**10. What is a Sequence?**

A
sequence is simply an ordered set of elements.A sequence S is sometimes written
as the enumeration of its elements,such as S =If S contains n elements,then length
of S is n.

**11. Define len(S),first(S),last(S),nilseq ?**

len(S) is
the length of the sequence S.

first(S)
returns the value of the first element of S last(S) returns the value of the
last element of S

nilseq
:Sequence of length 0 is nilseq .ie., contains no element.

**12. What are the two basic operations that access
an array?**

**Extraction:**

Extraction
operation is a function that accepts an array, a ,an index,i,and returns an
element of the array.

**Storing:**

Storing
operation accepts an array , a ,an index i , and an element x.

**13. Define Structure?**

A
Structure is a group of items in which each item is identified by its own
identifier ,each of which is known as a member of the structure.

**14. Define Union ?**

Union is
collection of Structures ,which permits a variable to be interpreted in several
different ways.

**15. Define Automatic and External variables?**

Automatic
variables are variables that are allocated storage when the function is
invoked.

External
variables are variables that are declared outside any function and are
allocated storage at the point at which they are first encountered for the
remeinder of the program’s execution.

**16. What is a Stack? **

A Stack
is an ordered collection of items into which new items may be inserted and from
which items may be deleted at one end, called the top of the stack.

The other
name of stack is Last-in -First-out list.

**17.
****What are
the two operations of Stack?**

• _ PUSH

• _ POP

**18.
****What is a
Queue?**

A Queue
is an ordered collection of items from which items may be deleted at one end
called the front of the queue and into which tems may be inserted at the other
end called rear of the queue.Queue is called as First–in-First-Out(FIFO).

**19. What is a Priority Queue? **

Priority
queue is a data structure in which the intrinsic ordering of the elements does
determine the results of its basic operations. Ascending and Descending
priority queue are the two types of Priority queue.

**20. What is a linked list?**

Linked
list is a kind of series of data structures, which are not necessarily adjacent
in memory. Each structure contain the element and a pointer to a record
containing its successor.

**21. What is a doubly linked list?**

In a
simple linked list, there will be one pointer named as 'NEXT POINTER' to point
the next element, where as in a doubly linked list, there will be two pointers
one to point the next element and the other to point the previous element
location.

**22. Define double circularly linked list?**

In a
doubly linked list, if the last node or pointer of the list, point to the first
element of the list,then it is a circularly linked list.

**23. What is a circular queue?**

The
queue, which wraps around upon reaching the end of the array is called as
circular

queue.

**24.
****Define
max and min heap?**

·
A heap in which the parent has a larger key than
the child's is called a max heap.

·
A heap in which the parent has a smaller key than
the child is called a min heap.

**25. ****Write postfix from of the expression –A+B-C+D?**

A-B+C-D+

**26. Define Recursion?**

Recursion
is a function calling itself again and again.

**27. What is a Fibonacci sequence?**

Fibonacci
sequence is the number of integers

0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,……….

Each
element in this sequence is the sum of the two preceding elements.

**28.Name the two fields of Linked list?**

• Info
field

• Next field

**29. What is a doubly linked list?**

In a
simple linked list, there will be one pointer named as 'NEXT POINTER' to point
the next element, where as in a doubly linked list, there will be two pointers
one to point the next element and the other to point the previous element
location.

**30. Name the three fields of Doubly Linked list?**

• Info
field

• Left
field

• Right
field

**31. Define double circularly linked list?**

In a
doubly linked list, if the last node or pointer of the list, point to the first
element of the list,then it is a circularly linked list.

**32. What is the need for the header?**

Header of
the linked list is the first element in the list and it stores the number of
elements in the list. It points to the first data element of the list.

**33. List three examples that uses linked list?**

• Polynomial
ADT

• Radix
sort

• Multi
lists

**34. Give some examples for linear data structures?**

• Stack

• Queue

**35. How do you test for an empty queue?**

To test
for an empty queue, we have to check whether READ=HEAD where REAR is a pointer
pointing to the last node in a queue and HEAD is a pointer that pointer to the
dummy header. In the case of array implementation of queue, the condition to be
checked for an empty queue is

READ

**36.
****What are
the postfix and prefix forms of the expression?**

A+B*(C-D)/(P-R)

Postfix
form: ABCD-*PR-/+ Prefix form: +A/*B-CD-PR

**37.
****Explain
the usage of stack in recursive algorithm implementation?**

In
recursive algorithms, stack data structures is used to store the return address
when a recursive call is encountered and also to store the values of all the
parameters essential to the

current
state of the procedure.

**38. Write down the operations that can be done with
queue data structure?**

Queue is
a first - in -first out list. The operations that can be done with queue are
insert and remove.

**39. What is a circular queue?**

The
queue, which wraps around upon reaching the end of the array is called as
circular queue.

**40. Define max heap?**

A heap in
which the parent has a larger key than the child's is called a max heap.

**41. Define min heap?**

A heap in
which the parent has a smaller key than the child is called a min heap.

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Object Oriented Programming and Data Structure : Linear Data Structures : Important Short Questions and Answers: Linear Data Structures |

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