1. Tobacco consumption is known to stimulate secretion of adrenaline. The component causing this could be
b) Tannic acid
2. World 'No Tobacco Day' is observed on
a) May 31
b) June 6
c) April 22
d) October 2
3. Cancer cells are more easily damaged by radiations than normal cells because they are
a) Different in structure
c) Mutated Cells
d) Undergoing rapid division
4. Which type of cancer affects lymph nodes and spleen?
5. Excessive consumption of alcohol leads to
a) Loss of memory
b) Cirrhosis of liver
c) State of hallucination
d) Supression of brain function
6. Coronary heart disease is due to
a) Streptococci bacteria
b) Inflammation of pericardium
c) Weakening of heart valves
d) Insufficient blood supply to heart muscles
7. Cancer of the epithelial cells is called
8. Metastasis is associated with
a) Malignant tumour
b) Benign tumour
c) Both (a) and (b)
d) Crown gall tumour
9. Polyphagia is a condition seen in
b) Diabetes mellitus
c) Diabetes insipidus
10. Where does alcohol effect immediately after drinking?
b) Auditory region
d) Central nervous system
1. AIDS is an epidemic disease. - True
2. Cancer causing genes are called Oncogenes. - True
3. Obesity is characterized by tumour formation. - False
Cancer is characterized by tumour formation.
4. In leukemia both WBCs and RBCs increase in number. - False
In Leukemia WBC increases in number.
5. Study of cause of disease is called etiology. - True
6. AIDS is not transmitted by contact with a patient’s clothes. - True
7. Type 2 diabetes mellitus results due to insulin deficiency. - False
Type 2 diabetes mellitus results due to low activity by Insulin.
8. Carcinogens are cancer causing agents. - True
9. Nicotine is a narcotic drug. - True
10. Cirrhosis is associated with brain disorder. - False
Cirrhosis is associated with liver disorder.
1. IDDM 2. HIV 3. BMI
4. AIDS 5. CHD 6. NIDDM
1. IDDM - Insulin Dependent Diabetes mellitus.
2. HIV - Human Immuno-deficiency Virus
3. BMI - Body Mass Index.
4. AIDS - Acquired Immuno deficiency Syndrome.
5. CHD - Coronary Heart Disease.
6. NIDDM - Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
1. Sarcoma - Stomach cancer
2. Carcinoma - Excessive thirst
3. Polydipsia - Excessive hunger
4. Polyphagia - Lack of blood flow to heart muscle
5. Myocardial Infarction - Connective tissue cancer
1. Sarcoma - Connective tissue cancer
2. Carcinoma - Stomach cancer
3. Polydipsia - Excessive thirst
4. Polyphagia - Excessive hunger
5. Myocardial Infarction - Lack of blood flow to heart muscle
1. Cirrhosis is caused in liver due to excessive use of Alcohol
2. A highly poisonous chemicals derived from tobacco is Nicotine
3. Blood cancer is called Leukemia.
4. Less response of a drug to a specific dose with repeated use is called tolerance
5. Insulin resistance is a condition in Type II diabetes mellitus
1. Communicable: AIDS: Non communicable: Diabetes mellitus
2. Chemotherapy: Chemicals: Radiation therapy: Radiation
3. Hypertension:Hypercholesterolomia: Glycosuria: Hyperglycemia
1. What are psychotropic drugs ?
(i) There are certain drugs called psychotropic drugs which act on the brain and alter the behaviour, consciousness, power of thinking and perception.
(ii) They are referred as mood altering drugs.
2. Mention the diseases caused by tobacco smoke.
Bronchitis, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Emphysema, Mouth cancer.
3. What are the contributing factors for Obesity?
Genetic factors, Physical inactivity, Eating habits, Endocrine factors.
4. What is adult onset diabetes?
(i) Type II Non-Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is called adult onset diabetes since one of the major causes is increasing age (affecting middle aged and elder people].
(ii) It develops slowly and later becomes stable.
5. What is metastasis?
(i) The cancerous cells migrate to distant parts of the body and affect new tissues.
(ii) This process is called metastasis.
6. How does insulin deficiency occur?
In the case of Type I insulin dependent diabetes, the (β-cells of the pancreas get destroyed.
(a) This results in deficiency of insulin produced by the pancreas , since (β -cells produce insulin.
(b) Hence it leads to elevated glucose levels in the blood.
In the case of non - insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, insulin production by the pancreas is normal but its action is impaired.
Thus in both cases, deficiency of insulin is observed.
1. What are the various routes by which transmission of human immuno deficiency virus takes place ?
HIV is transmitted generally by
(i) Sexual contact with infected person.
(ii) Use of contaminated needles or syringes.
(iii) By transfusion of contaminated / infected blood or blood products.
(iv) From infected mother to her child through placenta.
2. How is a cancer cell different from a normal cell ?
Cancer Cell : Normal cell
1. The size of the nucleus is large. : 1. They have normal small sized nucleus.
2. The nucleoli are very prominent. : 2. The nucleoli are less prominent.
3. They can multiply indefinitely. : 3. They have fixed rate of multiplication.
4. They invade surrounding tissues. : 4. They do not invade surrounding tissues.
5. They remains less differentiated. : 5. They are well differentiated cells.
3. Differentiate between Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes mellitus
Factors : Type I - Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) : Type II - Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
Prevalence : 10 - 20% : 80 - 90%
Age of Onset : Juvenile onset (< 20 years) : Maturity onset (> 30 years)
Body weight : Normal or Underweight : Obese
Defect : Insulin deficiency due to destruction of (β-cells : Target cells do not respond to insulin
Treatment : Insulin administration is necessary : Can be controlled by diet, exercise and medicine.
4. Why is a dietary restriction recommended for an obese individual ?
Eating habits are a major cause for obesity (overeating).
(i) Diet Management : Low calorie, normal protein, vitamins and mineral, restricted carbohydrate and fat, high fiber diet can prevent overweight.
(ii) Calorie restriction for weight reduction is safe and most effective.
5. What precautions can be taken for preventing heart diseases ?
(i) Diet Management: Reduction in the intake of calories, low saturated fat and cholesterol rich food, low carbohydrates and common salt are some of the dietary modifications. Diet rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is essential.
Increase in the intake of fibre diet, fruits and vegetables, protein, minerals and vitamin are required.
(ii) Physical activity : Regular exercise, walking and yoga are essential for body weight maintenance
(iii) Addictive substance avoidance : Alcohol consumption and smoking are to be avoided.
1. Suggest measures to overcome the problems of an alcoholic.
(i) Education and counselling : Education and proper counselling will help the alcoholics to overcome their problems and stress, to accept failures in their life.
(ii) Physical activity: Individuals undergoing rehabilitation should be channelized into healthy activities like reading, music, sports, yoga and meditation.
(iii) Seeking help from parents and peer groups: When a problematic situation occurs, the affected individuals should seek help and guidance from parents and peers. This would help them to share their feeling of anxiety, wrong doing and get rid of the habit.
(iv) Medical assistance: Individual should seek help from psychologists and psychiatrists to get relieved from this condition and to lead a relaxed and peaceful life.
(v) Alcohol de-addiction and rehabilitation programmes are helpful to the individual so that they could get rid of the problem completely and can lead a normal and healthy life.
2. Changes in lifestyle is a risk factor for occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Can it be modified ? If yes, suggest measures for prevention.
Cardiovascular disease is associated with diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
The risk factors for coronary heart diseases are : Hypercholesterolemia (High blood cholesterol) and high blood pressure (Hypertension) are the major causes. If untreated it may cause severe damage to brain, kidney and eventually lead to stroke.
Causes: Diet rich in saturated fat and cholesterol, heredity (family history), obesity, increasing age, cigarette smoking, emotional stress, sedentary life style, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity are some of the causes.
Thus changes in life style are a important factor for the occurrence of heart disease:
It can be modified by conscious efforts such as :
(i) Eating healthy food rich is proteins and carbohydrates and avoiding Junk food.
(ii) Avoiding food items rich in cholesterol.
(iii) Avoiding sedentary life style at home and work place by indulging in lot of physical activity.
(iv) Avoid smoking, alcohol consumption.
(v) Go for regular medical tests to determine the blood cholesterol levels and related body functions.
(vi) Eating habits must be regular and food must not be compromised.
(vii) Lot of fresh fruits and salads included in the diet can help to remain healthy.
1. What is the role of fat in the cause of atherosclerosis ?
(i) Fatty substances such as cholesterol get deposited in the blood vessels from childhood.
(ii) It starts from a fatty streak and develops into a fibrous complicated plaque.
(iii) This leads to the narrowing of blood vessels leading to atherosclerosis in the large and medium sized arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygen.
(iv) It leads to ischemia (deficient blood supply to heart muscle) and myocardial infarction (death of the heart muscle tissue).
2. Eating junk food and consuming soft drinks results in health problems like obesity, still children prefer. What are the suggestions you would give to avoid children eating junk food/ consumption of soft drinks?
(i) Children must be given healthy foods from childhood and healthy snacks must be given to them so that they develop a taste for the same from a young age.
(ii) They can be given fruit juices, sugarcane juice etc., instead of cool drinks. Parents must also adhere to this.
(iii) As they grow up they can be taught about the negative impact of Junk food and cool drinks.
(iv) Even in schools, teachers advise parents to send healthy snacks instead of chips / other Junk food.
(v) Though children will find it difficult to avoid Junk food / Cool drinks because of advertisment, influence of friends etc., we should make a conscious effort to create awareness among students.
3. Regular physical exercise is advisable for normal functioning of human body. What are the advantages of practising exercise in daily life?
Regular physical exercise can give the following benefits.
(i) It helps to burn calories and brings about weight loss.. Obesity can be avoided by exercising regularly.
(ii) It brings about changes in the brain which can reduce stress and anxiety due to production of certain hormones.
(iii) It increases energy levels in the body.
(iv) It is good for the muscles and bones.
(v) It brings in a lot of positive thoughts and helps fight depression.
(vi) It can reduce risk of chronic diseases.
4. A leading weekly magazine has recently published a survey analysis which says that number of AIDS patient in the country is increasing day by day. The report says that the awareness among the people about AIDS is still very poor. You are discussing the magazine report in your class and a team of your class decides to help people to fight against the dreadful disease.
a) What problem you face when trying to educate the people in your village near by your school?
b) How do you overcome the problem ?
(i) People in the village may not easily understand the scientific concept and use of vernacular language will be required.
(ii) They may not be willing to cooperate.
(iii) It may be a sensitive issue to educate them regarding safe sex.
This problem can be overcome by identifying some responsible people in the village such as panchayat body or NGO wrokers or some educated people who will understand the issue and convince people to cooperate with us. Film shows can be screened regarding the disease which will have a better impact on the people.
1. Once a person starts taking drugs or alcohol it is difficult to get rid of the habit. Why ?
Persons who consume these drugs become fully dependent on them. They cannot live without drugs. This condition is referred as drug dependence.
Physical and mental dependence: Dependence on the drug for normal condition of well being and to maintain physiological state.
Psychological dependence : Feel that drugs help them to reduce stress.
2. Men addicted to tobacco lead to oxygen deficiency in their body. What could be the possible reason?
(i) Smoking can lead to inflammation of lung alveoli and decrease the surface area for gas exchange.
(ii) Carbon monoxide of tobacco smoke binds to Haemoglobin of RBC and decreases its. Oxygen carrying capacity causing hypoxia in body tissues.
(iii) Therefore men addicted to tobacco will suffer from oxygen deficiency in their body.
3. Name any three foods that are to be avoided and included in the diet of a diabetic patient. Why should it be followed?
Foods to be included in the diet of a diabetic patient are:
(i) Whole grains
(ii) Green leafy vegetables
(iii) Unpolished rice
These foods are rich in fibre content, proteins and have low carbohydrate content.
Foods to be avoided :
(i) Fruit juices I sweets.
(ii) Starchy vegetables.
They are rich in Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates break into glucose in blood faster than other types of food and raises blood sugar level.
Hence diabetics should go in for protein rich food or food rich in fibre content.
4. How can informational efforts change people’s HIV knowledge and behaviour?
Efforts to share information about AIDS include :
(i) Creating awareness by campaign and educating people on the consequences of AIDS.
(ii) Helping people to gain knowledge about the causes and risk factors regarding the disease.
Thus will help them to prevent the spread of the disease by
(i) Screening of blood from blood banks before transfusion.
(ii) Ensuring that only disposable needles and syringes are used in hospitals and clinics.
(iii) Advocating measures for safe sex.
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion is given and a corresponding statement of Reason is given just below it. Of statements given below mark the correct answer as
a. If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion
b. If both Assertion and Reason are true that Reason is not the correct explanation of Asssertion
c. Assertion is true but Reason is false
d. Both Assertion and Reason are false
1. Assertion: All drugs act on the brain.
Reason: Drugs disturb the functioning of the body and mind.
Answer: a. If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion
2. Assertion: Excretion of excess glucose in urine is observed in a person with diabetes mellitus.
Reason: Pancreas is unable to produce sufficient quantity of insulin.
Answer: a. If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion