1. Define DBM.
DBM: DBM is the software programs those directors the storage, maintenance, manipulation, and retrieval of data users retrieve or store data by issuing specific request to the DBM. The objective of introducing a DBM is to free the user from the detail of exactly how data are stored and manipulated,
2. What is meant by database administrator?
Database administrator is an individual or group charged with the maintenance and design of the database, including approving access to the stored information.
In large organization with many users, the database administrator is vital to the success of the database systems.
For small projects, the database administrator might be an assistant project manager or ever the project manager.
3. What are the advantages relational models of databases?
reduces the redundancy Manipulation is easy
Alternatives views or external models of the information.
4. Define hierarchical model.
The hierarchical model is a tree structure in which information is organized as branches and nodes from a particular base. It has the characteristic that each item has a single predecessors and a variable number of subordinate data items.
5. What are the advantages of centralized management systems?
(i) Reduced redundancy: Good planning can allow duplicate or similar data stored in Different files for different applications to be combined and stored only once (ii)Improved availability: Information may be made available to any application Program through the use of the DBM
(iii) Reduced inconsistency: If the data is stored in more than one place, then updating in one place and not everywhere can lead to inconsistencies in the database.
(iv)Enforced data security: Authorization to use information can be centralized.
6. Define database.
Database is an accumulation of information in an organized form. It is a collection of
stored operational information used by the management and application systems of some
7. What are the application programs in DBM?
Data is drawn from the central database as needed by individual programs Information request are typically performed by including predefined function calls to the database management system within an application program.
One program are stored in the database and can be used by subsequent programs without specialized translation routines.
8. What is a spread sheet program?
Spread sheet programs are important group of software that have many utilities in the construction trade. It is a table consisting of rows and columns, values can be entered in each cell. Calculations can be made among these values and the results are entered in new cells. E.g. Contract bid.
9. Define data dictionary.
Data dictionary contains the definitions of the information in the database. Data dictionary are limited to descriptions as the information source for anything dealing with the database systems. The data dictionary may be contain user authorization specifying who may have access to particular pieces of information
10. Define a conceptual data model.
A database is a collection of stored operational information used by management and application system of some particular enterprise. Conceptual data model provides the user with an abstract representation of the data organization.
11. What is the use of time card of a labor?
Time card information of labor is used to determine the amount which employees are to be paid and to provide records of work performed by the activity. The information available from time cards is often recorded twice in mutually incompatible formats.
12. Define relational database.
Data can also be stored in a conceptually different model. One such model is called a relational database. A relational database on the other hand is a stack of blackboards that can communicate with each other.
13. What is an external model?
Externals models are the means by which the users view the database. Of all the information in the database, one particular users view may be just a subset of the total.
14. What is the main feature of database?
Database can serve the role of storing a library of information on standard architectural features and compound properties.
These standard compounds can be called from the database library and induced into a new design
The database can also store the description of a new design, such as number, type and location of building components
15. Write about the applications of expert systems for construction.
Artificial intelligence techniques are used to generate plans, and to reason with and provide explanations from stored knowledge. Blackboard approach provides a mechanism for an expert system to place a message to be read by other programs.
16. Why accuracy in information is necessary?
Construction projects inevitably generate enormous and complex sets of information. Poor or missing information can readily lead to project delays or uneconomical decisions. More and better information can lead to better decisions.
17. What is a network data model?
The network model or database organization retains the organization of information on branches and nodes, but does not require a tree structure as hierarchical data model. This gives greater flexibility but does not necessarily provide ease of access to all data items.
18. List the information sets to be collected during the progress of the project.
The information sets to be collected during the progress of the project are
a. Cash flow and procurement accounts for each organization.
b. Intermediate analysis results during planning and design.
c. Design documents including drawing and specification d. Construction schedules and cost estimates
e. Quality control and assurance records.
f. Legal contracts and regulatory documents
19. What are the advantages of integrated application systems?
Communicate with a single database
Integrated system without extensive modifications to existing programs
the use of integrated systems with open success to a database is not common for construction activities at the current time.
20. What are the disadvantages of centralized database management systems?
1. Central database systems may be expansive and cumbersome that it becomes ineffective
2. Manual information management can also expansive
3. Installing and maintaining database costly
4. A single database is particularly vulnerable to equipment failure