1. On what basis you will select the equipment for the construction?
· Volume of the material to be removed
· Size of the machine used
· Depth of excavation
· Height to be lifted
· Soil type
· Duration of period
· Rented or purchased
· Production cost
· Spares availability
· Skilled operation
2. List some excavation equipment?
a) Crawler or track type
b) Wheel or pneumatic type Bull dozer & Angle dozers
a) Crawler-drawn scraper
b) Two-axle scraper
c) Three-axle scraper Power shovels
3. Bring out some difference between crawler and pneumatic type of wheels?
Crawler Pneumatic type wheels
1.The crawler moves on an endless chain. 1.It moves on pneumatic tyres.
2.They are slow speed. 2.They are faster in speed.
3.They are used for uneven & rough ground. 3.They operate best on smooth roads.
4.They have a speed of about 12 Km/h. 4.They have a speed of about 50 Km/h.
1.The crawler moves on an endless chain.
2.They are slow speed.
3.They are used for uneven & rough ground.
4.They have a speed of about 12 Km/h.
Pneumatic type wheels
1.It moves on pneumatic tyres.
2.They are faster in speed.
3.They operate best on smooth roads.
4.They have a speed of about 50 Km/h.
4. What are the three types of scraper?
· Crawler-drawn scraper
· Two-axle scraper
· Three-axle scraper
5. What is the power shovel?
· It is used to excavate the earth of all classes and load it into wagons.They are mounted on crawler tracks.It consist of a mountain ,cab,boon,dipper ,stric,hoist line.
6. Name some compaction equipment?
· Towed static smooth compactors
· Static sheep foot or pad foot compactors
· Static three wheel self propelled compactors
· Static tandem compactors
· Three axle static compactors
· Rubber tyred compactors
· Vibrator compactors
a) Tandem vibrator compactors
b) Towed vibrator compactors
c) Sheep foot & tamping foot vibrator compactors
d) Self-propelled vibrator compactors
e) Hand guided vibrator compactors
7. What are the types of conveyors?
· Belt conveyors
· Roller conveyors
· Chain conveyors
· Pipe conveyors
· Elevating conveyors
8. Give some advantages of belt conveyor?
· Its suitable levels eliminate a good deal of lifting and lowering of material.
· It require no stopping or standing but is continuous operation.
· Transportation is affected by friction between material being transported and the belt.
· It largely saves labor cost.
· No noise
· Carry the material horizontal,vertical,inclined.
· It can withstand 1600 C.
9. How do you calculate the output of the scraper?
· Size & Mechanical condition of the scraper
· Hauling device
· Condition of the haul road
· Characteristics of soil & work area
· Output of scraper in bank volume/hr =Optimum loose volume loaded/trip x S x 60/t x efficiency
o Where ,S= Swell factor
§ T =cycle time/trip in miniutes.
10.What are the uses of excavators?
· It have various earthmoving jobs,like laying pipes,removing trees,excavation of drains,general earth moving jobs of cleaning area,loading,etc,It is also used for excavation of houses & building foundation,trenches for irrigation,sewage,cables,gas & oil pipe lines.Maintenance & cleaning of rivers,cannals,irrigation.It is also used for loading of material like earth,coal,aggregate,etc.
11. What are the types of excavators?
· Crawler mounted excavators
· Truck mounted excavators
· Self propelled excavators
· Excavators mounted on barge or rail
· Hydraulic excavators
· Excavators loader
· Bucket wheel excavators
12.Give the advantages of elevating scraper?
· Better loading ability
· It is self loading one in addition to self propelled capabilities.
· The chain rotated by power independent of the travel of the scraper.
· It has a variable speed
· It has a very good finishing ability.
· Pusher not required
· It gives uniform compaction
· They are capable of loading most materials except rock and boulders.
13.List the factors which will affect the output of the scraper?
· When working in hard ground the surface should be pre broken by a ripper or scarifier
· and assistance in cutting should be given by a pushing vehicle.
· Where possible the cutting operation should take place down hill to take full advantage of the weight of the unit.
· Haul roads should be kept smooth to enable the machine to obtain maximum speed.
· Recommended tyre pressure should be maintained.
· Size, distance,Road condition,soil type,Efficiency of engine.
14.What is grader?Give its uses?
§ It is used for leveling and smoothening the earth work.Spreading and leveling the base course in the construction of roads and air fields.This blade can be rotated at 3600 and also used as
§ ditching and trenching operation.
· Gravel road repairing
· Ditch filling or digging
· Level or sloped ground finishing
· Snow clearance
· Land clearance
· Base course of spreading and leveling
15. What are the types of tractors?
· Crawler type
· Wheel type
· Two wheeled Four wheeled
17.What is the application of dozer?
· Road cleaning
· Back filling
· Side fills & cuts
18.What does the output of dozer depend on?
§ The output of the dozer depends on:
· Size & condition of the dozer.
· Distance travelled by the dozer.
· Speed of operation.
· Characteristics of soil being handled.
· Surface on which dozer is operating, soil condition, etc
19.Give some importance of excavators?
· Excavators are basically used for soil, it is a digging machine.
· The hydraulic system is very productive and efficient.
· It is rotated at 3600
· This can be fitted with various multipurpose attachments for various works like laying pipe, removing trees, excavating drain, clearing, loading, etc.
20.Give the application of trenchers?
§ Trenchers are the equipment used for excavating trenches or ditching of variable depth. It is used to trench the water lines, pipe lines, oil line cables, drainage and sewer. These are usefull for digging canal works.
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