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Chapter: Civil - Construction Techniques Equipment Practices - construction equipment

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Introduction to construction equipments

Types of earth moving equipment Classified into following types Production equipment Equipment used for digging and moving Service equipment Dozers and motor girders


Introduction to construction equipments

 

Types of earth moving equipment

 

Classified into following types

 

Production equipment

Equipment used for digging and moving

Service equipment

Dozers and motor girders

 

1 Tractors

 

Tractors are machine which change the engine energy into tractive energy

These are primarily used for pull or push the loads

 

They are also used for different purposes by mounting many types of accessories

 

Types of tractor

 

Crawler type or track type

Rubber tired or wheel type

 

The tractor is multi purpose machine

 

Light models are used for agricultural or short haulage works

Heavy models are employed in earth moving works, cranes, shovels or special rigs

 

Wheeled types or employed in light but speedy jobs

 

Main constituents of tractor are engine ,clutch ,transmissonsystem,ground drive and

controls

 

Factors should be considered while selecting a tractor dozer

 

Size of the dozer for given job the type expected from the track to dozer

 

The type and condition of haul

road distance to be move

 

2 Bulldozers

Dozers are machine designed primarily for cutting and pushing the material over short

distance

 

 

They consist with a front mounted blade controlled by hydraulic cylinder to vary the depth of cut and rate of leveling depending on the material and application

 

a dozer is frame mounted unit with a blade, curved in its section, extending in front of the tractor

 

Bulldozer is most versatile and most important equipment on construction project

 

Basically its pushing unit but its widely used as multipurpose equipment and can perform large number of operations with minor changes

 

3 Scrapers

 

Scrapers are the devices to scrap the ground and load it simultaneously, transport it for the required distance and dump it and then spread it for the required area

 

The scrapers are designed to dig,load,haul,dump and spread

 

The scrapers are of three types

 

towed type

conventional type

self loading or elevating scrapers

 

Towed type

 

The towed type scrapers are provided with either cable or hydraulic control It can be operated in extremely adverse condition

 

Conventional scrapers

 

These are generally manufactured from 10to 25cubicmetres

 

Self loading scrapers

 

These are twin engine scrapers

It can work completely independently of all other plants

 

It has the following parts

 

Bowl

 

o Cutting edge o Apron

Tail gate or ejector

 

Following or three major operations of scrapers

 

Loading or digging

Transporting

Unloading


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