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Civil - Mechanics Of Solids - Transverse Loading On Beams And Stresses In Beam

*TRANSVERSE LOADING ON BEAMS AND
STRESSES IN BEAMS *

*1. What is beam?*

*Beam is structural member which is supported along
the length and subjected to external forces acting transversely to the centre
line.*

*2. Define
Shear force*

*Shear force at a section in a beam is defined as
the algebraic sum of all the vertical forces acting on the beam either to the
left (or) to the right of the section.*

*3. Define
Bending moment.*

*Bending moment at a section in a beam is defined
as the algebraic sum of moments about the section of the beam either to the
left (or) to the right of the section.*

*4. Write
four types of beams based on their types of supports?*

*a.
Simply supported beams* *b. Fixed
beam*

*c.
Cantilever beam* *d.
Propped cantilever beam*

*5. What are
the different types of loading on a beam?*

*a.
Concentrate load (or) point load* *b. Uniformly distributed load*

*c.
Non-uniform distributed load* *d. Couple or moment.*

*6. **What are
the different types of supports? *

*(i) **Simply
support (or) roller support *

*(ii) **Pinned
support (or) Hinged support *

*(iii) **Rigid
support (or) Fixed support *

*7. **What is a
simply supported beam? *

*A beam supported or resting freely on the walls
columns at its both ends is known as a simply supported beam.*

8. *What is
Cantilever beam?*

*A beam
fixed at one end and free at the other end is known as a cantilever beam.*

*9. What is
continuous beam?*

*A beam
which has more than two supports is called continuous beam.*

*10. What is overhanging beam?*

*If the
one or both the end portions are extended beyond the support then it is called.*

*11. Define fixed beams.*

*A beam whose both ends are rigidly fixed or
built-in walls is known as rigidly fixed beam or a built in beam.*

*12. What is transverse load?*

*A load
which has more than two supports is called transverse load.*

*13. What is point load?*

*A load
which is acting at a particular point is called point load.*

*14. What is uniformly distributed load?*

*A load which is spread over a beam in
such a manner that the rate of loading 'w' is **uniform
throughout** **the length.*

*15. What is shear force?*

*It is the
unbalanced vertical forces on the left or right section of the beam.*

*16. Define bending moment.*

*Bending at a cross section is the algebraic sum of
the moments of all the forces which are placed either side from that point.*

*17. Write the relation between SF and BM.*

*The rate of change of BM is equal
to the SF at the section dM/dx = - F*

**18. A
clockwise moment M
is applied at the free
end of cantilever.
Draw the SF
and BM diagrams of the
cantilever. **

SF Calculation SF diagram

SFA= 0

SF at B = 0

BM Calculation BM diagram

BM at B = -M

(Since for
counterclockwise moment)

BM at A = -M

(BM at both the ends is
same)

*19. A simply supported beam of span
'l' is subjected to central concentrated load 'W'. What is the bending **moment at
the centre?*

*Bending
moment at the centre M _{c} = Wl/4*

*20.
**What is point of contra flexure?
Whether point of contra flexure will occur in a cantilever beam? *

*The point where BM is zero after changing its sign
is known as point of contra flexure. *

*21.
**Whether point of contra flexure
will occur in a cantilever beam? *

*The Point
of contra flexure will not occur in a cantilever beam.*

*22. Define pure bending (or) bending stress.*

*Simple
bending means flexure by pure bending moment without shear force.*

*23.
**What are the assumptions are made
in the theory of pure bending? *

*a) **The
value of the young's modulus is the same for the beam material in tension as
well as compression. *

*b) **The transverse
section of the beam, which is a plane before bending, will remain a plane after
bending. *

*c) **The
material of the beam is homogeneous and isotropic. *

*24.
**State the theory of simple
bending. *

*If a beam is bent only due to application of
constant BM and not due to shear then it is called simple bending.*

*25. Write
down the bending equation.*

M _{=} f _{=} E I y R

*M - Moment of resistance I - Moment of inertia*

*f - Maximum
bending stress*

*y - Distance from the neutral axis E - **Young's
modulus*

*R -
Radius of the curvature*

*26.
Define Section modulus*

It is the ratio of moment
of inertia about the neutral axis to distance of the extreme fiber from the
neutral axis.

Section modulus Z = I / Y

*27. What is
moment of resistance of the section?*

*It is the
product of section modulus and bending stress at that section.*

*M = f x Z*

*28. What is a flitched beam? Why it is used?*

*A flitched beam means a beam of composite section
consisting of a wooden beam strength ended by mild steel plates. It is mainly
used to reinforce the material which has lower strength and reduce the cost.*

*29. Why flitched beam is used?*

*It is
mainly used to reinforce the material which has lower strength and reduce the
cost.*

*30. What is the value of maximum shear stress in a
rectangular cross section?*

*The max
shear stress in a rectangular section is 1.5 times the average stress.*

*31.
Write down the
equation for shear
stress distribution across
a circular section
with radius.*

*R at a
distance y from neutral axis.*

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