Materials for Beam:
The beams may be made from several usable engineering materials such commonly among them are as follows:
Issues Regarding Beam:
Designer would be interested to know the answers to following issues while dealing with beams in practical engineering application
• At what load will it fail
• How much deflection occurs under the application of loads.
Cantilever Beam: A beam which is supported on the fixed support is termed as a cantilever beam: Now let us understand the meaning of a fixed support. Such a support is obtained by building a beam into a brick wall, casting it into concrete or welding the end of the beam. Such a support provides both the translational and rotational constrainment to the beam, therefore the reaction as well as the moments appears, as shown in the figure below
Simply Supported Beam: The beams are said to be simply supported if their supports creates only the translational constraints.
Some times the translational movement may be allowed in one direction with the help of rollers and can be represented like this
Statically Determinate or Statically Indeterminate Beams:
The beams can also be categorized as statically determinate or else it can be referred as statically indeterminate. If all the external forces and moments acting on it can be determined from the equilibrium conditions alone then. It would be referred as a statically determinate beam, whereas in the statically indeterminate beams one has to consider deformation i.e. deflections to solve the problem.
Types of loads acting on beams:
A beam is normally horizontal where as the external loads acting on the beams is generally in the vertical directions. In order to study the behaviors of beams under flexural loads. It becomes pertinent that one must be familiar with the various types of loads acting on the beams as well as their physical manifestations.
A. Concentrated Load: It is a kind of load which is considered to act at a point. By this we mean that the length of beam over which the force acts is so small in comparison to its total length that one can model the force as though applied at a point in two dimensional view of beam. Here in this case, force or load may be made to act on a beam by a hanger or though other means
B. Distributed Load: The distributed load is a kind of load which is made to spread over a entire span of beam or over a particular portion of the beam in some specific manner
In the above figure, the rate of loading „q' is a function of x i.e. span of the beam, hence this is a non uniformly distributed load.
The rate of loading „q' over the length of the beam may be uniform over the entire span of beam, then we cell this as a uniformly distributed load (U.D.L). The U.D.L may be represented in either of the way on the beams
some times the load acting on the beams may be the uniformly varying as in the case of dams or on inclind wall of a vessel containing liquid, then this may be represented on the beam as below:
The U.D.L can be easily realized by making idealization of the ware house load, where the bags of grains are placed over a beam.