Human Resource Mobilization
Meaning of Manpower Planning:
scale enterprises also need to draw plans to take various decisions and perform
multi various activities. In simple words, plans are basic to any sort of
enterprise - whether large, medium or small. This includes the plans or
provisions for manpower also. Unfortunately, the man power planning is
neglected area in the Indian context especially in small scale industry. Under
manpower planning, the management needs to ask itself two basic questions of:
kinds of people do we need?
ask this question, we must first understand the types of jobs to be filled. For
example, do these jobs require someone with training in typing or shorthand or
can they be done by an individual without any specialized training but who can
learn our billing system quickly and who enjoys assignment requiring attention
to small details?
such questions in a systematic manner, enterprises often do develop job
descriptions. In simple words, job descriptions are written explanations of the
duties of a job together with a list of the minimum qualification necessary to
hold the job. The use of these guides makes the selection process to a great
extent, more eﬀective.
many people do we need?
the previous question deals with the quality of personnel. This question deals
with the quantity of personnel the enterprise needs. We must answer several
questions to determine the number of people required for various positions
throughout the enterprise.
1. Is the
demand for certain skills and occupations growing, constant or shrinking?
2. How much
work can the average person do in a specified period of time?
3. What is
the level of absenteeism?
4. What is
the level of turnover?
planning can be defined as ”the process by which an entrepreneur ensures that
he has the right number of people and right kind of people with appropriate
skills, at the right place and the right time to do work for which they are economically
requirements must be identified before an enterprise select employees for
Conducting Job Analysis:
an investigation into various aspects of a task in terms of skill, qualification,
duties and responsibilities.
job title, the department to which it relates line of supervision, relationship
with other jobs, types of material and equipment used, mental and manual
dexterity, working condition etc.
stated, job description deals with what, why, when and how tasks are to
performed. In other words, it is a written statement of work conditions, time
involvement and job responsibilities.
specification is a description of the salient features of the person to be
recruited in the specific job.
standard against which the salient features of the employee are matched how far
he matches with the job specifications. In other words, it describes the
personal qualities of the employees like their knowledge, skills, experience,
qualities of leadership and decision making abilities etc.
in small scale industries is more diﬃcult because they cannot compete
with their large counterparts in salary, fringe benefits and apparent
stability. These limitations impose severe problems for small enterprises for
qualified and committed work force. The entrepreneur should also strive hard to
create a public image of his enterprise as a worthy place to work and proper.
regards recruitment in small scale industries, the most prevalent practice
exercised in small scale units is to seek out and select candidates rather than
wait for applications as happens in the case of large scale industrial unit.
Broadly, these could be two sources of recruitment in small scale enterprises:
sources refer to recruitment from the present workforce of the enterprise
itself. Filling vacancies from own existing employees boost the morale of the
employees because they look forward scope and avenues for their career
development and advancement. Such hope for future often motivates the employees
to put in their best performance. This manner of recruitment has other side
also. One of the serious drawbacks of this manner, to mention, is what while
the quality of level of employee‟s remains limited to that of the existing
employees, on the other hand, the advantages of including the induction of
fresh blood is missed.
Referrals: Many a times, the existing employees of the enterprise and other
sister organizations can refer to suitable candidates. In this case, kinship,
friendship and village ties of the existing employees expectedly play a major
role in the recruitment process.
Sometimes the entrepreneurs receive recommendations from their friends and
relatives to employ the persons known to them. The experience suggests that the
entrepreneurs need to be cautions in considering such recommendations. The best
principle in such case will be ”Never hire a person to please someone, make
sure that you want him.”
Applications: This is one of the common manners exercised to recruiting
employees in small enterprises. The enterprise receives application and require
for jobs from several sources.
applications are kept and as and when there is a need to recruit people, these
applicants are contacted if still available.
If the entrepreneurs have suﬃcient
time at their disposable to process and interview the candidates. They
advertise their vacancies in the newspaper and other medias like radio and
television. This manner ensures better choice for entrepreneurs to recruit the
Kinship, friendship and relatives Unsolicited applications
and recommendations Advertisements
process starts where recruitment ends. Selection means fitting a round peg in a
round hole.This is done by comparing the requirements of job with the
qualifications and experience of a candidate.
purpose of selection is to find out right kind of people to fill the available
positions; an orderly and systematic procedure is therefore always advisable
selection of over qualified people results frustration on the part of the
employees, selecting under qualified people invites indignation of the employer
the selection procedure varies from place to place and enterprise to
enterprise, most commonly used selection procedures in small scale industries
recruitment programme is non-selective, the preliminary interview is likely to
be used in selection. This interview is short, often lasting for ten-fifteen
minutes. The basic purpose of the preliminary interview is to determine an
applicant‟s suitability for further consideration. The kind of work available
in the enterprise is explained by the interviewer. If there is felt some chance
of successful placement, the applicant is allowed to continue the rest of the
commonly used in the selection process. Questions like work history, education
level, work experience and the type of work applied for are asked in the
question blank. Application blanks certain questions related to the probability
of job success.
psychological tests administered in the enterprise are paper and pencil. The
test taker is given a series of questions and a choice of two or more possible
answers to each question.
Test: This is a test measuring intelligence of the applicant and his ability to
learn certain skills.
Test: It is a test that measures one‟s current knowledge of a specific test.
Test: Under the test, an applicant‟s personality traits such as dominance,
sociability and conformity are measured.
Test: As the name of the test itself denotes, this is the test measures one‟s
interest in various fields of work.
references are generally unreliable and biased. Many a times reference persons
are not well qualified to judge one‟s past work performance. Therefore, the
names of previous employees and teachers are considered more reliable and
unbiased in giving judgment about one‟s past experienced/performance.
facilitates an interviewer to evaluate more eﬀ ectively the applicant‟s potential for success in
the particular job. The basic objective of an interview device should be to
measure those facilitating qualities and traits that cannot be better measured
by some other devices like testing or application blank.
physical examination is usually placed towards the end of the selection
process. It gives the enterprise current information about the applicant‟s
physical health at the time of selection or hiring.
Once a new employee has been selected, he/she
is finally placed to perform the specific job. A new comer should be properly
introduced to his fellow workers, shown the location of facilities available,
informed of regulations if any and encourages asking any needed information.
employees selected should be made familiar with their enterprises objectives
and activities and acquainted with their jobs. Thus begins their orientation
period to learn about their work environment. Henceforth starting the training
and development of newly selected employees.
may be defined as any procedure, initiated by an enterprise, which intends to
foster and enhance learning among the employees working in the enterprise.
Training in small scale unit is concerned, the owner himself takes the
responsibility for developing and conducting the training programme with an
objective to enhance the employee‟s job related skills and knowledge.
improve job performance by enhancing employee‟s knowledge and skill.
prepare employee‟s well competent to discharge the new responsibilities.
3. To impart
skill how to operate the new machinery and equipments.
4. To reduce
the wastages and accidents.
5. To build
a second line for more responsible position at a later stage. Characteristics
of a Successful Training Programme:
objectives and scope are clearly defined.
training techniques are related directly to the need and objectives of the
employs accepted principles of learning.
4. As far as
possible, it is conducted in the actual job environment. Methods of Training:
1. On the
job Training: The oldest and most commonly used training technique in the small
scale units is the on the job training. It consists of the employees receiving
training from their supervisors and other departmental members while they
perform their regular jobs. Such training is considered essential on every job
available in the enterprise. On the job training has three categories:
Demonstration: The job is demonstrated to the employees and each step involved
in the process is explained thoroughly.
Performance: The trainees perform the task what they have learned in the step
Inspection: In the third and final step, the work performed by the employees,
as mentioned in the step two, is inspected and immediate feedback of the job
performance to the employees.
Training: Apprentice training combines both formal classroom learning and on
the job experience. This kind of training programme is provided mainly in the
Rotation: This kind of training is particularly beneficial in the case of small
scale industries where each employee has a thorough understanding of the diﬀ erent functions performed in the
enterprises. In this training programme, employees are moved from one job to
job for a few hours a day, a few days or several weeks.
Training: The outside training consists of the employees being trained at schools/institutes
outside the enterprise. Training is a continuous process of the employee
remuneration expressed in terms of wages is of critical concern to personnel
relations in small scale industry, whereas wages represent income to the
employees, they represent cost of the employer and potential taxes to the
government. Wages constitute the largest part of the employee‟s purchasing
power and therefore have an important bearing on the level of economic
regards labor is organized (i.e.) large industrial sector, he is politically
awakened and is ready to protest to secure his rights. Wages in the small
sector are around one-half of those in the large organized sector through labor
productivity does not so diﬀ er
between them. The high wages in the organized sector have been described as
”islands of prosperity” when compared to the poor wages or ”oceans of distress”
in a small sector.
in small enterprises are not fixed on well established norms and principles of
equal pay for equal work. In fact, wage fixation is usually done based on the
bargaining strengths of the employer and employee in which the former dominates
the scene. Even knowing wide diﬀ erences
in wages between the two sectors, employee in the small sector/unorganized
sector, they are not in the position to voice their concerns is an eﬀ ective manner due to their poor
Benefits and Services:
addition to remuneration (i.e.) wages to the employees for their work done,
enterprises nowadays also pay for a wide variety of supplementary items - often
called fringe benefits. These benefits are the indirect payments made to the
employees in addition to their direct wages and salaries. The employer‟s
federation of India considers fringes as those benefits provided by the
employer (a) which materially add to the welfare of the employees either during
the tenure of their service or their retirement - (b) the expenditure of which
does not form part of his normal wages and other allowances. Days are gone when
the fringe benefits
secondary importance. Over the period, these benefits have risen to such an
extent but these now command a significant proportion of the total employee
compensations. All the fringe benefits can be broadly
payments consisting of bonus
for employee welfare.