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Chapter: Basic Concept of Biotechnology - Medical Biotechnology

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Human Genome Project and its influence on medical biotechnology

The human genome project was started in 1990 under the coordination of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.

Human Genome Project and its influence on medical biotechnology


The human genome project was started in 1990 under the coordination of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. The main goals of human genome project were to:

 

·        identify all the approximately 25,000-30,000 genes in human DNA,

 

·        determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human genome


Applications of genome research

 

Some recent and budding applications of genome research include:

 

·        Molecular medicine

 

·        DNA forensics (identification in crime spots)

 

·        Energy sources and environmental applications

 

·        Agriculture, livestock breeding, and bioprocessing

 

·        Bioarchaeology, anthropology, evolution, and human migration


Influence on medical biotechnology

 

Some of the goals of molecular medicine include:

 

·        Improved diagnosis of disease

 

·        Earlier detection of genetic predispositions to disease

 

·        Rational drug design

 

·        Gene therapy and control systems for drugs

 

·        Pharmacogenomic (custom drugs)


Genome maps are progressively expanding which aid researchers in seeking genes connected with numbers of genetic diseases, including neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, myotonic dystrophy, inherited colon cancer, fragile X syndrome, familial breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, a large no. of people dies every year from undesirable reactions to drugs, and others face painful or dangerous side effects. Now, it is known that genes and DNA sequences influence drug responses; it is anticipated that the number of adverse responses would reduce and side effects can be obviated.

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