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Chapter: Basic Concept of Biotechnology - Medical Biotechnology

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Biotech in the Hospital

Pharmacogenomics: It covers the aspect of designing of the most operative drug therapy and treatment approach based on the detailed genetic profile of a patient.

Biotech in the Hospital

 

 Pharmacogenomics

 

It covers the aspect of designing of the most operative drug therapy and treatment approach based on the detailed genetic profile of a patient. Same drug produces different responses in different individuals. Pharmacogenomics gives hope that extensive genetic studies will lead to the production of personalized drugs and increase their safety and efficacy.

 Gene Therapy

 

Briefly, Gene therapy is useful for correcting defective (missing or damaged) genes. This can be done by:

 

·        Insertion of a normal gene into a nonspecific position

 

·        Swapping of abnormal gene for normal gene

 

·        Repairing an abnormal gene

 

·        Turning a gene on or off

 

Typically, a carrier molecule called a vector is used for inserting a normal gene into the genome. A virus whose disease-encoding genes have been substituted by therapeutic genes is considered a common vector.


 Assays and genetic testing devices

 

Rapid diagnostics technology, Immunodiagnostics, swiftly and efficiently detects proteins, antibodies and infectious agents in different range of formats within very few minutes with 100%accuracy rates. For example, the best known example of medical device made possible by biotechnology is a pregnancy test kit. In this home pregnancy test kit, monoclonal antibody (MAb), a protein, binds to HCG and causes a colour change. HCG is found in a woman's urine only during her pregnancy stage.

Several other biotech devices are offered to identify infections, drug levels, hormone levels, and cancer cells. These devices are also proved to be an important tool against infectious diseases and bioterrorism.

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