has been applied in the medical science for hundreds of years with mankind’s
revelation that diseases can be cured from living organisms by using their
products. The earliest known use of antibiotics can be traced back to 2500
years ago, when the mouldy curds made from soybeans were used by ancient
Chinese to fight infection.
Pasteur is considered one of the pioneers in the improvement of modern
antibiotics. In 1870s, he discovered that saprophytic bacillus can check the growth of anthrax bacteria (Bacillusanthracis). Alexander Fleming
discovered penicillinin in 1928.
1973, the medical age of biotechnology was started by Herb Boyer and Stanley
Cohen when they could develop a technique ofintroducing DNA into an E. coli bacterium and created a
transgenic bacterium. Later this recombinant DNA technology was used to
successfully introduce the human insulin gene into E. coli. The genetically engineered E. coli was able to synthesize human insulin. Based upon Boyer and
Cohen's recombinant DNA technique, Werner Aber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Smith
discovered restriction endonuclease enzymes and received Nobel Prize for
Medicine in 1978.