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Chapter: Civil - Municipal Solid Waste Management - Onsite Storage & Processing

Hauled and Stationary containers

The design of an efficient waste collection system requires careful consideration of the type, size and location of containers at the point of generation for storage of wastes until they are collected.

Hauled and Stationary containers

 

The design of an efficient waste collection system requires careful consideration of the type, size and location of containers at the point of generation for storage of wastes until they are collected. While single-family households generally use small containers, residential units, commercial units, institutions and industries require large containers. Smaller containers are usually handled manually whereas the larger, heavier ones require mechanical handling. The containers may fall under either of the following two categories:

 

(i)             Stationary containers: These are used for contents to be transferred to collection vehicles at the site of storage.

 

(ii)           Hauled containers: These are used for contents to be directly transferred to a processing plant, transfer station or disposal site for emptying before being returned to the storage site.

 

The desirable characteristics of a well-designed container are low cost, size, weight, shape, resistance to corrosion, water tightness, strength and durability (Phelps, et al., 1995). For example, a container for manual handling by one person should not weigh more than 20 kg, lest it may lead to occupational health hazards such as muscular strain, etc. Containers that weigh more than 20 kg, when full, require two or more crew members to manually load and unload the wastes, and which result in low collection efficiency.

Containers should not have rough or sharp edges, and preferably have a handle and a wheel  to facilitate  mobility.   They should be covered  to prevent  rainwater from entering (which increases     the weight and rate of decomposition         of organic materials) into the solid wastes. The container body must be strong enough to resist  and  discourage    stray  animals and  scavengers    from ripping  it as  well  as withstand        rough handling      by      the  collection crew  and  mechanical  loading equipment.

Containers  should  be  provided  with  a  lifting bar,   compatible  with  the  hoisting mechanism of the vehicle. The material used should be light, recyclable, easily moulded and the surface must be smooth and resistant to corrosion. On the one hand, steel and ferrous containers  are heavy and subject     to corrosion; the  rust    peels  off  exposing  sharp  edges, which  could  be  hazardous  to         the collection  crew.       On  the        other,  wooden  containers (e.g.,  bamboo,  rattan  and wooden  baskets)  readily  absorb  and  retain  moisture  and  their  surfaces  are generally rough, irregular and difficult to clean.   

 

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