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Chapter: Civil - Municipal Solid Waste Management - Onsite Storage & Processing

Solid Waste Management: Vehicle storage method

Solid Waste Management: Vehicle storage method
Onsite Storage & Processing - Vehicle storage method - 1 Collection vehicles (i) Small-scale collection and muscle -powered vehicles (ii) Non-compactor trucks 2 Compactor truck:

Vehicle storage method

1 Collection vehicles

Almost  all  collections are  based  on collector and  collection  crew,  which  move through  the  collection  service area  with  a vehicle for  collecting  the  waste material. The collection vehicle selected must be appropriate to the terrain, type and density of waste generation points, the way it travels and type and kind of material  (UNEP,  1996).  It  also  depends  upon  strength,  stature  and  capability  of the  crew  that  will  work  with  it.  The collection  vehicle  may  be  small  and  simple  (e.g.,  two-wheeled cart pulled by  an individual) or  large, complex  and energy intensive  (e.g., rear   loading  compactor truck). The most commonly used collection vehicle is the dump truck fitted with a hydraulic lifting mechanism. A description of some vehicle types follows:

(i)    Small-scale   collection and   muscle -powered   vehicles: These are common vehicles used for waste collection in  many countries and are generally  used in rural  hilly areas.  As  Figure  3.3 illustrates, these  can  be small rickshaws, carts or wagons pulled by people or animals, and are less expensive, easier to build and maintain compared to other vehicles:

Small-scale Collection Vehicles:  An Illustration


They are  suitable for  densely  populated  areas with  narrow  lanes, and squatter   settlements, where there   is relatively   low   volume   of waste generated. Some drawbacks  of  these collection vehicles include limited travel  range  of  the  vehicles  and  weather  exposure  that affect humans and animals.

(ii) Non-compactor  trucks:  Non-compactor trucks  are  efficient and  cost effective in small  cities  and  in  areas  where  wastes  tend  to  be very  dense and  have little  potential   for compaction.

 


When these trucks are used for waste collection, they need a dumping system to easily discharge the waste. It is generally required to cover the trucks in order to prevent residue flying off or rain soaking the was tes. Trucks with capacities of 10 - 12 m3 are effective, if the distance between the disposal site and the collection area is less than 15 km. If the distance is longer, a potential transfer station closer than 10 km from the collection area is required. Non-compact trucks are generally used, when labour cost is high. Controlling and operating cost is a deciding factor, when collection routes are long and relatively sparsely populated.

 

 

2 Compactor truck:

 

Compaction vehicles are more common these days, generally having capacities of 12 - 15 m3 due to limitations imposed by narrow roads. Although the capacity of a compaction vehicle, illustrated in Figure 3.4, is similar to that of a dump truck, the weight of solid wastes collected per trip is 2 to 2.5 times larger since the wastes are hydraulically compacted:

Figure 3.5

Compactor Truck


The success of  waste management depends on  the  level of segregation at source.


A compactor truck allows waste containers to be emptied into the vehicle from the  rear, front or  sides  and  inhibits  vectors  (of  disease)  from reaching  the waste during collection and transport. It works poorly when waste stream is very dense, wet, collected materials are gritty or abrasive, or when the roads are dusty. The advantages of the compactor collection vehicle include the following:

 

         Containers are unifor m, large, covered and relatively visually inoffensive;

 

         Waste is set out in containers so that the crew can pick them up quick ly;

 

         Health risk to the collectors and odour on the streets are minimized, waste is relatively inaccessible to the waste pickers.

 

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