Factors affects the waste collection
(i).Finalising and implementi ng the system management plan:
For proper implementation of collection and transfer system, it is ne cessary to have clear organisational structures and management plans. The organisational struc ture should be simple, with a minimum of administrative and management layers between collection crews and top management. All workers in the department should clearl y understand the department's mission and their roles. Through training, incentives and r einforcement by management, workers should be encouraged to be customer-oriented and te am contributors. Feedback mechanisms must be introduced to help the crew review their performance and help managers monitoring the performance of crews, equipment, etc. It is als o important to periodically review the manag ement plans and structures, as implementation of collection services continues.
(ii).Purchasing and managi ng equipment: For purchasing equipment, m ost municipalities issue bid specifications. Detaile d specifications include exact requirements for equipment sizes and capacities, power ratings, e tc. Performance specifications often request that equipment be equivalent to certain availab le models and meet standards for capacity, speed, etc.Municipalities may either perform equipment maintenance themselves; contr act with a local garage, or in some cases, contract with the vehicle vendor at the time of pur chase. As part of the preventive maintenance pr ogramme, the collection crew should check the vehicle chassis,
tyres and body daily and rep ort any problems to maintenance managers. In addition, each
vehicle should have an individ ual maintenance record that includes the follo wing items:
ü Preventive maintenance s chedule;
ü Current list of specific en gine;
ü A description of repairs and a list containing information on the repair date, mechanic, cost, type an d manufacturer of repair parts
ü The length of time the truck was out of service, for each maintenance event.
(iii) Hiring and training personnel: As in all organisations, good personnel management is essential to an efficient, high-quality waste collection system. Authorities responsible for SWM should, therefore, strive to hire and keep well-qualified personnel. The recruitment programme should assess applicants' abilities to perform the types of physical labour required for the collection, equipment and methods used. To retain employees, management should provide a safe working environment that emphasises career advancement, participatory problem solving and worker incentives. Worker incentives should be developed to recognise and reward outstanding performance by employees. Ways to accomplish motivation include merit-based compensation, awards programme and a work structure. Feedback on employee performance should be regular and frequent.
Safety is especially important because waste collection employees encounter many hazards during each workday. As a result of poor safety records, insurance costs for many collection services are high. To minimise injuries, haulers should have an ongoing safety programme. This programme should outline safety procedures and ensure that all personnel are properly trained on safety issues. Haulers should develop an employee- training programme that helps employees improve and broaden the range of their job-related skills. Education should address such subjects as driving skills, first aid, safe lifting methods, identification of household hazardous wastes, avoidance of substance abuse and stress management.
(iv) Providing public information: Maintaining good communication with the public is important to a well-run collection system. Residents can greatly influence the performance of the collection system by co-operating in separation requirements, and by keeping undesirable materials from entering the collected waste stream. Commonly used methods of communicating information include brochures, articles in community newsletters, newspaper articles, announcements, and advertisements on radio and television, information attachments to utility bills (either printed or given separately) and school handouts. Communication materials should be used to help residents understand the community waste management challenges and the progress in meeting them. Residents should also be kept informed about issues such as the availability and costs of landfill capacity so that they develop an understanding of the issues and a desire to help meet their waste management needs.
(v) Monitoring system cost and performance: Collection and transfer facilities should develop and maintain an effective system for cost and performanc e reporting. Each collection crew should complete a daily report containing the following information:
ü Total quantity hauled.
ü Total distance and travel times to and from the disposal site.
ü Amounts delivered to ea ch disposal, transfer, or processing facility. Waiting time at sites.
ü Number of loads hauled.
ü Vehicle or operational problems needing attention.
data should be used to forecast workloads, truck costs, identify changes in the
generation of wastes and recyclables, trace the origin
of problematic was te materials
and evaluate crew performance. Just as
the goals of a collection
programme set its overall
directions, a monitoring syste m
provides the short-term feedback neces sary to identify the corrections needed
to achiev e those goals.
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