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Chapter: Web Technology : Web Essentials


The first version of HTML was created using the Standard Generalized Mark up Language (SGML).




·   The first version of HTML was created using the Standard Generalized Mark up Language (SGML).


·  In the early years of HTML, Web developers were free to define and modify HTML in whatever ways they thought best.


·  Competing browsers introduced some differences in the language. The changes were called extensions.


·  A group of Web developers, programmers, and authors called the World Wide Web Consortium, or the WC3, created a set of standards or specifications that all browser manufacturers were to follow.


· The WC3has no enforcement power.


· The recommendations of the WC3are usually followed since a uniform approach to Web page creation is beneficial to everyone.


Comparison of HTML versions:


HTML Basics:


HTML is primarily composed of two types of markup:

• Elements or tags

o <html></html>

Attributes that modify an element


HTML Elements


Elements are the fundamental building blocks of HTML.


They are the tags that tell the browser what the enclosed text is.


HTML Tags:


• Container Tags


o <Begin formatting>some text</End formatting> o For example: <B>some bold text</B>

<H1>some heading </H1>

• Empty Element Tags

o For example <HR> <BR>

• Comment Tag

o <!-- Hi, I'm a comment. -->

o Use them document complicated layouts!


Case insensitive

Unrecognised tags are simply ignored by browser!!

Container tags must be nested!!


   As a text document, your HTML in Notepad will contain elements, such as headers, titles, paragraphs, etc.


These elements must be denoted in your script, which is done using tags

HTML tags consist of a left angle bracket (<), a name, and a right angle bracket(>)

For example: <title>


  Tags must also close. To do so, you incorporate a slash (/). A starting and ending tag would be: <title> </title>.




You can add attributes to tags to enhance your page.


  Added attributes go inside the brackets of the opening tag(example: <p align=center> would center the paragraph)


About HTML file Structure:


· HTML files .htm or .html extensions


·   Name your files to describe their functionality file name of your home page should be index.html


Common Tags (Elements):

· Always include the <HTML></HTML> tags

· Comments placed inside <!----> tags

· HTML documents

o HEAD section.

o  Info about the document.


o Info in header not generally rendered in display window. o TITLE element names your Web page.

o BODY section

Page content

Includes text, images, links, forms, etc.

Elements include backgrounds, link colors and font faces P element forms a paragraph, blank line before and after


Structure of HTML Tag (Element) Alignment

Text Styling


Underline style<U></U>

Align elements with ALIGN attributeright, left or center

Close nested tags in the reverse order from which they were opened

Emphasis (italics) style<EM></EM>

Strong (bold) style<STRONG></STRONG>

<B> and <I> tags deprecated Overstep boundary between content and presentation

Logical Styles:

o <EM>, <STRONG> a add emphasis to text


o <BIG>, <SMALL> a increase or decrease text size o <SUB>, <SUP> a subscript or superscript


• Physical styles:

o <B>, <I>, <U> a Bold, Italics, and Underline text


o <FONT SIZE=# FACE= “name” COLOR=“colorName or #rgb” > o E.g., <FONT SIZE=+2 FACE = “arial” COLOR = “darkblue”>


eXtensible Mark up Language (XHTML) :


To describe the general form and layout of documents

An XHTML document is a mix of content and controls


   In XHTML tag names, attributes, and values are case sensitive and values must be enclosed by double quotes.


In XHTML all elements must have both beginning and ending tags.

Controls are tags and their attributes


o Tags often delimit content and specify something about how the content o should be arranged in the document.


o Attributes provide additional information about the content of a tag.

Tools for creating XHTML documents


o XHTML editors - make document creation easier o Shortcuts to typing tag names, spell-checker,


Plug ins

o Integrated into tools like word processors,


o effectively converting them to WYSIWYG o XHTML editors



o Convert documents in other formats to XHTML


Advantages of both filters and plug-ins:


Existing documents produced with other tools

can be converted to XHTML documents

Use a tool you already know to produce XHTML


Disadvantages of both filters and plug-ins:


XHTML output of both is not perfect - must be fine tuned

XHTML may be non-standard

You have two versions of the document, which are difficult to synchronize


Relative URL


HTML Link:


To create a link to a resource identifiable by a URL o href: specify a URL of the target resource

o target: specify where to display the target document


e.g.: <a href="index.htm" target="_blank">Home</a> Open the document "index.htm" in a new browser window


Can also be used to create an anchor within a document o name: specify the anchor name


e.g.: <a name="chap1"></a><h2>Chapter 1</h2> The above anchor can be referred to in a URL as


<a href="http://host/file.html#chap1">Chapter 1</a>


URL (Uniform Resource Locator) in HTML:


URL is used to create a link in a web document.


Two Types of URL:


1. Absolute URL


• Absolute URL contains all the information necessary to identify files on the internet (Example: in postal service, for sending letter to the destination it necessary to have full information like, name, address, city etc.,)


   Likewise, an absolute URL contains the protocol, hostname, filename, which are all essential to link the web document.





i. http://google.com/index.html


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