Preposition is a word or phrase that connects a noun or pronoun to a verb or adjective in a sentence.
Common Prepositions: in, on, at, to, with, during, before, after
Prepositions of time
Time prepositions include: at, on, in, before and after. They are used to help indicate when something happened, happens or will happen.
Prepositions of time examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.
* I was born on July 4, 1982.
* I was born in 1982.
* I was born at exactly 2 a.m.
* I was born two minutes before my twin brother.
* I was born after the Great War ended.
* I first met John in 1987.
* It’s always cold in January
* Easter falls in spring each year.
* The Second World War occurred in the 20th century.
* We eat breakfast in the morning.
a. Fill in the blanks by using correct preposition.
1. We go to school on Mondays, but not on Sunday
2. Christmas falls on 25th December.
3. Buy me a present on my birthday.
4. Families often argue during Christmas time.
5. I work faster at night.
6. Her shift finished at 7 p.m.
A modal is a type of helping verb that is used to express: ability, possibility, permission or obligation like must shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, dare, need.
Modal phrases (or semi-modals) are used to express the same things as modals, but are a combination of helping verbs and the preposition ought to, used to.
How to use:
Circle the modal verbs in the list given in the box.
shall should will have to would can need to could may ought to might dare used to need
Shall Should will
have to would can
need to could may ought to might
dare used to need
We use modal verbs to show if we believe something is certain, probable or possible (or not).
We also use modals to do things like talking about ability, asking permission making They may come by car.
We use the negative can’t or cannot to show that something is not possible.
That can’t be true.
You cannot be serious.
We use couldn’t/could not to talk about the past.
We knew it could not be true.
He was obviously joking. He could not be serious.
We use the modal must to show we are sure something to be true and we have reasons for our belief.
It’s getting dark. It must be quite late.
You haven’t eaten all day. You must be hungry.
We use can to ask for permission to do something.
Can I ask a question, please?
Can we go home now?
could is more formal and polite than can
Could I ask a question please?
Could we go home now?
Instructions and requests
We use could you and would you as polite ways of telling or asking someone to do something.
Can I …? Can you …? Could I … Could you …? and so on.
The negative form is can’t in spoken English and cannot in written English. We sometimes say cannot, but it is very emphatic.
The negative form of could is couldn’t in spoken English and could not in written English.
We sometimes say could not.
We use can and can’t.
I. Use polite request when we seek help from others.
a. Fill in the blanks using would you or could you.
1. Could you please close the door?
2. Could you please open the window?
3. Could you mind going to the back bench?
4. Could you please bring some water for me?
b. Use the phrases could you or would you in the following situations with your friend.
1. Ask the policeman for directions.
Answer: Could yon please tell me the way to the railway station?
2. You need to borrow your friend’s bike.
Answer: Would you lend me your bike?
3. You would need to exchange the book purchased.
Answer: Could you exchange this book?
4. You want to open your classroom window
Answer: Could you please open our classroom window?
I. Fill in the blanks with the correct Prepositions.
1. Get me a cup---------------coffee.
2. She ran-------------the finals and won the first prize.
3. Ravi liked---------------paint cartoons.
4. It’s always dark ---------------this room.
5. We visit our relatives------------- the weekends
6. All of them stayed for the function---------- 9 p.m.
7. I met my old friend----------- the party.
I. Use suitablw modals.
1. -----------you please lend me your book?
2. ------------you mind closing the window?
3. ----------I leave the room?
4. --------------we go for a movie?
5. ------------you please give me the window seat?
6.-------------you mind moving a little?
7.------------you buy this medicine for me?
8.-----------you spare a little time for me?
9.--------------I come in?
10.------------------you mind taking care of my pet for sometime?
II. Frame questions with modals like shall,can,would,could,should,may for the following situations.
1. Ask your friend for an address.
Answer: Could you guide me to this address?
2. Permission to borrow your friend’s car.
Answer: May I borrow your car?
3. Permission to enter the classroom.
Answer: May I come in?
4. Offer a drink or beverage.
Answer: Would you like a cup of coffee?
5. Express a possibility.
Answer: I may be late by half an hour.