Glossary - Administrative Machinery in India
v Civil Service: Those branches of public service that are not legislative, judicial, or military and in which employment is usually based on competitive examination. The entire body of persons employed by the civil branches of a government.
v Appointment: A non-elected government job.Most jurisdictions offer several kinds of appointments.A noncompetitive appointment is government employment obtained without competing with others, in the sense that is done without regard to civil service registers.
v Civil Service Reform: Civil service reform, which implies developing the capacity of the civil service to fulfill its mandate, defined to include issues of recruitment and promotion, pay, number of employees, performance appraisal and related matters.
v Decentralization: Decentralization is commonly regarded as a process through which powers, functions, responsibilities and resources are transferred from central to local governments and/or to other decentralized entities. In practical terms, decentralization is a process of striking a balance between the claims of the periphery and the demands of the centre.
v E-democracy: E-democracy is the utilization of electronic communications technologies, such as the Internet, to enhance democratic processes, including elections, forums and other participatory means. It is a relatively new political development, as well as the subject of much debate and activity within government, civic-oriented groups and societies around the world.
v E-governance: E-governance can be defined as the application of ICT tools in (1) the interaction between government and citizens and businesses, and (2) in internal government operations to simplify and improve democratic governance.
v Good governance: Good governance entails sound public sector management (efficiency, effectiveness and economy), accountability, exchange and free flow of information (transparency), and a legal framework for development (justice, respect for human rights and liberties) (World Bank).
v Human Resources: Human resources is a term with which many organizations describe the combination of traditionally administrative personnel functions with performance, Employee Relations and resource planning. The field draws upon concepts developed in Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Human resources has at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of four factors of production. The more common usage within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within the firm, and to the portion of the firm’s organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues.
v Integrity: In public administration, integrity refers to “honesty” or “trustworthiness” in the discharge of official duties, serving as an antithesis to “corruption” or “the abuse of office.” Integrity is a key element that completes the notion of accountability and transparency. It can also be defined as incorruptibility, an unimpaired condition or soundness and is synonymous to honesty.
v Public Administration: Public Administration is centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct.
v Transparency: Transparency refers to unfettered access by the public to timely and reliable information on decisions and performance in the public sector, as well as on governmental political and economic activities, procedures and decisions
v Welfare State: Political system based on the premise that the government has the responsibility for the wellbeing of its citizens, by ensuring that a minimum standard of living is within everyone’s reach. This commitment is translated into provision of universal and free education, universal medical care, insurance against disability, sickness, and unemployment, family allowances for income supplement, and old age pensions.