Although many of the factors to be investigated in the selection of suitable sites will depend on the culture system to be adopted, there are some which affect all systems, such as agroclimatic conditions, access to markets, suitable communications, protection from natural disasters, availability of skilled and unskilled labour, public utilities security, etc.. It may be possible to find solutions when these factors are unfavourable and present problems, but it would involve increased investment and operating costs and would affect profitability. In the case of small-scale aquaculture, it is necessary to determine that the selected site has easy access to materials that cannot be produced on the farm and that the necessary extension services are available.
All available meteorological and hydrological information about the area (generally available from meteorological and irrigation authorities) such as range and mean monthly air temperature, rainfall, evaporation, sunshine, speed and direction of winds, floods, water table, etc., have to be examined to assess their suitability.
In land-based aquaculture, the most commonly used installations are pond farms and hatcheries. Since most such farms have earthen ponds, soil characteristics, the quality and quantity of available water and the ease of filling and drainage, especially by gravity, are basic considerations. For fresh-water pond farms, the land available consists mainly of swamps, unproductive agricultural land, valleys, stream and river beds exposed due to changes of water flow, etc. (figs 4.1–4.3). Land elevation and flood levels have to be ascertained. The maximum flood level in the last 10 years or the highest astronomical tide (in the case of brackish-water sites) should not be higher than the normal height of the dikes that will be constructed for the farm. It will be advantageous to select land with slopes not steeper than 2 per cent. The area should be sufficiently extensive to allow future expansion and preferably be of regular shape to facilitate farm design and construction.
The nature of the vegetation indicates the soil type and elevation of the water table. Obviously dense vegetation, particularly tall trees, makes clearing more difficult and expensive.
Land under grass or low shrubs is much better suited in this respect. However, in areas exposed to strong winds and cyclonic or similar weather conditions, sufficiently tall vegetative cover around the farm can serve as an effective wind breaker. High ground-water level may create problems in farm operation, as drainage will become difficult and expensive. The use of mechanical equipment for pond construction will also become inconvenient.
Among the other important general factors to be considered are the existing and future sources of pollution and the nature of pollutants. In this connection, information on development plans for the neighbourhood areas will be necessary. It will be useful to ascertain the past use of the site, if any. Croplands that have been treated for long periods with pesticides may have residues that are harmful to fish and shellfish. If the site is located adjacent to crop-lands that are sprayed from air or land, there is the risk of contamination occurring directly or through run-off water. Similarly, the possible effects of discharges from the pond farms into the waterways and irrigation systems in the neighbouring area should be considered. This can greatly influence the attitudes of the neighbourhood communities to the proposed farming and hence their future cooperation.
When a hatchery is planned in connection with a pond-rearing facility, the selection of its site depends on the location of the nursery and rearing ponds. The more important consideration is the unrestricted availability of good-quality water, such as from springs, tube wells, reservoirs, etc. If earthen nursery ponds are to be constructed alongside the hatcheries, it is necessary to ensure the quality of the soil for pond construction and pond management. In many modern hatcheries, fry rearing is mostly done in tanks and troughs, with as much control over ambient conditions as possible. So the main consideration is the availability of essential utilities such as electricity. The situation is very similar for the selection of sites for raceway farms. When the raceways are made of cement concrete the main consideration is the availability of adequate quantities of good-quality water and essential utilities.
The choice of sites for integrated aquaculture – such as fish culture combined with crop and livestock farming – is governed by factors other than their mere suitability for aquaculture. Land available for integrated aquaculture is generally agricultural land, even if it is some-what less productive. A satisfactory irrigation system is likely to have been developed for agriculture, in which case water and soil management can be expected to be easier. Since integrated farming is based on the recycling and utilization of farm wastes, problems of pollution can be expected to be minimal.
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