I. Choose the correct answer:
1. Where was the first Jain Council held to codify the Jaina canon?
[Answer: (a) Pataliputra]
2. In which language was Agama sutras written?
a. Ardha-Magadhi Prakrit
[Answer: (a) Ardha-Magadhi Prakrit]
3. Which of the following was patronised by the Kalabhras?
[Answer: (b) Jainism]
4. Where are the Rock beds found with no head-rests?
[Answer: (a) Vellore]
5. Who is believed to have built the Kazhugumalai Rock-Cut Temple?
a. Mahendra Varman
b. Parantaka Nedunchadayan
c. Parantaka Veera Narayana Pandyan
d. Harihara II
[Answer : (b) Parantaka Nedunchadayan]
II. Fill in the blanks:
1. The image of Neminatha is considered to be the tallest Jain image in Tamil Nadu.
2. Buddhacharitawaswritten by Asvaghosa.
3. Chinese traveller Huein Tsang visited Pallava country in 7th century.
4. Mahendravarman’s Mattavilasa Prahasana describes Buddhism as a religion in decay.
5. The Mauryan emperor Asoka and his grandson Dasarata patronized Ajivikas.
III. Match the following:
1. Kalpa sutra – Tiruthakkathevar
2. Jivaka Chintamani – Madurai
3. Neminatha – Nagasena
4. Milinda Panha – Bhadrabahu
5. Kizha Kuyil Kudi – 22nd Tirthankara
1. Kalpa sutra - Bhadrabahu
2. Jivaka Chintamani - Tiruthakkathevar
3. Neminatha - 22nd Tirthankara
4. Milinda Panha - Nagasena
5. Kizha Kuyil Kudi - Madurai
IV. Answer the following:
1. Find out the odd one
Tiruparuttikunram, Kizha Kuyil Kudi, Kazhugumalai, Nagapattinam, Sittanavasal.
2. Assertion (A): Gautama found that he had nothing to learn from the teachers of the old religions.
Reason (R): The religions proclaimed that the only way to salvation was through living the life of an ascetic.
a. A is correct. R is the correct explanation of A.
b. A is correct. R is not the correct explanation of A.
c. Both A and R are wrong.
d. A is wrong. But R is correct.
[Answer : (a) A is correct. R is the correct explanation of A]
3. Find out the correct statement/s
i. During the 6th century B.C. as many as 62 religious schools flourished in India.
ii. ‘Palli’ is an educational centre of Buddhists.
iii. Royal patronage allowed pre-Muslim India to become a land of vihars.
iv. The Ajivikas continued to exist till 15th century.
a. i) and iii) are correct.
b. i), ii) and iv) are correct.
c. i) and ii) are correct.
d. ii), iii) and iv) are correct.
[Answer : (a) i) and iii) are correct]
4. Find out the wrong pair/s
1. Parshvanatha – 22nd Tirthankara
2. Mahabashya– the Ceylonese Chroniclei
3. Visuddhimagga – Buddhagosha
4. Buddha – Eight-fold Path
[Answer : (a) Parshvanatha - 22nd Tirthankara]
V. True or False:
1. The 12th Agama Sutra is said to have been lost. [Answer : True]
2. Throughout history, Ajivikas had to face persecution everywhere. [Answer : True]
3. Education was imparted in institutions of Jains irrespective of caste and creed. [Answer : True]
4. Nalanda, Taxila and Vikramashila gained reputation as pilgrim centres. [Answer : False]
5. Buddhism faced challenges from Saiva and Vaishnava sects from the Chola period onwards. [Answer : False]
V. Answer the following:
1. Make a list of the Five Great Vows of Jainism.
Answer: Five Great Vows of Jainism:
(i) Non-violence - Ahimsa;
(ii) Truth - Satya;
(iii) Non-stealing - Achaurya;
(iv) Celibacy/Chastity - Brahmacharya;
(v) Non-possession - Aparigraha.
2. What are the four noble truths of Buddha?
(i) Life includes pain, getting old, disease, and ultimately death.
(ii) Suffering is caused by craving and aversion.
(iii) Suffering can be overcome and happiness attained.
(iv) True happiness and contentment are possible, if one pursues the eight-fold path.
3. Explain the three divisions of Tripitaka.
(i) The Pali canon Tripitaka has three divisions, also known as the Threefold Basket. They include Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka.
(ii) Vinaya Pitaka contains the rules of the order of Buddhist monks, which must be observed for achieving purity of conduct.
(iii) Sutta Pitaka lays down the principles of religion by citing discourses as evidence.
(iv) Abhidhamma Pitaka is the latest of the Tripitaka. It deals with ethics, philosophy and meta-physics.
4. Highlight the importance of Sittanavasal.
(i) Sittanavasal cave in Pudukkottai district is located on a prominent rock that stands 70 m above the ground.
(ii) It has a natural cavern, known as Eladipattam, at one end, and a rock-cut cave temple at the other.
(iii) The largest of these ascetic beds contains a Tamil-Brahmi inscription that dates to the 2nd century B.C.
(iv) The Sittanavasal cave temple, named Arivar Koil, lies on the west off the hillock. The facade of the temple is simple, with four rock-cut columns.
(v) Constructed in the early Pandya period, in the 7th century A.D., it has a hall in the front called the Ardha-mandapam.
VII. Answer in detail:
1. Enumerate the sources of study for Jainism and Buddhism.
Answer: Sources of Jainism:
(i) Mahavira’s preaching was orally transmitted by his disciples over the course of about one thousand years.
(ii) In the early period of Jainism, monks strictly followed the five great vows of Jainism. Even religious scriptures were considered possessions and therefore knowledge of the religion was never documented.
(iii) Two hundred years after the death of Mahavira, Jain scholars attempted to codify the canon by convening an assembly at Pataliputra, but it ended as a failure.
(iv) A second council held at Vallabhi, in the 5th century A.D., was, however, successful in resolving the differences. This enabled the scholars of the time to explain the principles of Jainism with certainty.
(v) Over time, many learned monks, older in age and rich in wisdom, had compiled commentaries on various topics.
Sources of Buddhism:
(i) Buddha’s teachings for a long time were transmitted through the memory of teachers and disciples.
(ii) They were reduced to writing by 80 B.C. and were written in the Pali language.
(iii) The Pali canon Tripitaka has three divisions, also known as the Threefold Basket. They include Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka.
2. Give an account of relics of Jainism and Buddhism that have come to light in Tamil Nadu.
Answer: Jains in Kanchipuram:
(i) Jainism flourished during the Pallava reign.
(ii) The two Jain temples in Kanchipuram are Trilokyanatha Jinaswamy Temple at Tiruparuttikunram and the Chandra Prabha temple dedicated to the Tirtankara named Chandra Prabha.
(iii) Mural paintings in the temples show scenes from the lives of Tirtankaras.
(iv) In the Kanchipuram district, Jain vestiges have been found over the years in many villages across the state.
Kazhugumalai Jain Rock-cut Temple:
(i) The Kazhugumalai temple in Thoothukudi district marks the revival of Jainism in Tamil Nadu.
(ii) Polished rock-cut cave beds, popularly known as Panchavar Padukkai at Kazhugumalai cavern host the figures of Tirtankaras and also the figures of yakshas and yakshis. Jain temples have also been excavated in the districts of Vellore, Tiruvannamalai and Madurai.
Buddhism in Tamilzhakam:
(i) Buddhism is believed to have spread to the Tamil country by the Ceylonese missionaries.
(ii) The monuments are in caverns known as Pancha Pandava Malai.
(iii) Chudamani Vihara of Nagapattinam was constructed by the Srivijaya king with the patronage of Rajaraja Chola.
(iv) In the field of education, Buddhist Sanghas and Viharas served as centers of education.
(v) Nalanda, Taxila and Vikramshila gained reputation as great educational centres. They were originally Buddhist Viharas.
(vi) Excavations of Buddhist Vihara and a temple at Kaveripoompattinam and hundreds of stone and bronze sculptures by ASI from over 125 sites have proved the spread of the religion in the state.
3. Discuss the essence of Ajivika philosophy and its presence in Tamil Nadu.
Answer: Ajivika Philosophy:
(i) The Ajivikas believed in the doctrine of karma, transmigration of the soul and determinism.
(ii) The Ajivikas practiced asceticism of a severe type.
(iii) The Ajivika religious order and school of philosophy is known from the vedic hymns, the Brahmanas, the Aryankas and other ancient Sanskrit compilations.
(iv) Throughout history, Ajivikas had to face persecution everywhere.
(v) Village communities under Pallavas, Cholas and Hoysalas imposed special taxes on them.
(vi) Despite such obstacles, Ajivikas continued to have influence along the Palar river in the modern states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (Vellore, Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur districts) till about the 14th century. In the end, they seemed to have been absorbed into Vaishnavism.
1. Analyse the commonalities and differences between heterodox religions and Vedic religion.
Answer: Heterodox religions and Vedic religion commonalities:
Hinduism is a way of life, while heterodox religions like Buddhism and Jainism advocate a way of life. All the religions doctrines are codified into texts to be followed by their devotees and practitioners. All these religions share key concepts, which one interpreted differently by different individuals.
• No rituals
• Ahimsa was preached.
• Alternative basis of social order propagated.
• Rituals and practices had become elaborate and expensive.
• Animal sacrifice existed.
• Birth based social status was prevalent.
2. Why did these heterodox religions fail to become mainstream religion in India?
Answer: (i) As far as Buddhism was concerned, if declined due to the loss of patronage and donation after the end of the Gupta Empire.
(ii) Invasion of north India by Huns, Turco Mongols and Persians was yet-another reason.
(iii) In the case of Jainism Lack of Patronage, Lack of efforts to spread the religion. Jains adopted many Hindu faiths. Jains started to differentiate people in the name of castes and classes.
(iv) Role of Hindu teachers was also another reason for the failure of these religions in India.
Students to visit district museums and places, where excavated Buddhists and Jain relics are on display.