Chapter: Civil - Construction Techniques Equipment Practices - Super Structure Construction

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Excavators

Excavators are basically digging machines having three major components An under carriage to give mobility.

Excavators

 

Excavators are basically digging machines having three major components An under carriage to give mobility

 

A super structure with operators cabin mounted on either a sloe ring to traverse through 360?or on a rigid frame

 

Hydraulically articulated boom or tipper arms with bucket

 

Types of excavatorsCrawler mounted excavators

Truck mounted excavators

 

Self propelled excavators

 

Excavators mounted on barge or rail

 

 

Compactors

 

Compaction is the process where by material particles are constrained to pack more closely together through

 

a reduction of air void content generally by mechanical means

 

Types of compactors

 

static smooth wheeled rollers

sheep foot and pad foot rollers

pneumatic tired rollers

vibratory rollers

 

Static compaction equipment

 

It has several types

 

towed static smooth compactors

static sheep foot or pad foot compactors

 

static three wheel self propelled compactors

static tandem compactors

three axle static compactors

 

Towed static smooth compactors

 

Smooth rolls where the first type of rolling compaction equipment used These where pulled by men or horses and were first used by Romans to smoothen there roads

 

Static sheep foot or pad foot compactors

 

When compacting the earth the feet penetrate deep in to th e loose material during the first passes and compact the soil from bottom up

 

The kneading effect of sheep foot compactors is used to break up the Earth lumps and reduce the air voids

 

Static three wheeled self propelled compactors

 

These have three rolls a small usually split steering role in the front

 

Two large drive rolls mounted on rear axle at both the end

 

Static tandem compactors

 

Tandem rolls have two equal sized rolls and are centered in line tandem

 

These are used for the compaction of bituminous layer as they leave a smooth surface

 

Vibratory compaction equipments

 

It can be divided in to following types

 

Tandem vibratory compactors

Towed vibratory compactors

Towed sheep foot and tamping foot vibratory compactors

Self propelled vibratory compactors

Hand guided vibratory compactors
 
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