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# Euclid’s Division Algorithm

Euclid’s division algorithm provides an easier way to compute the Highest Common Factor (HCF) of two given positive integers. Let us now prove the following theorem.

Euclid’s Division Algorithm

In the previous section, we have studied about Euclid’s division lemma and its applications. We now study the concept Euclid’s Division Algorithm. The word ‘algorithm’ comes from the name of 9th century Persian Mathematician Al-khwarizmi. An algorithm means a series of methodical step-by-step procedure of calculating successively on the results of earlier steps till the desired answer is obtained.

Euclid’s division algorithm provides an easier way to compute the Highest Common Factor (HCF) of two given positive integers. Let us now prove the following theorem.

### Theorem 2

If a and b are positive integers such that a = bq + r, then every common divisor of a and b is a common divisor of b and r and vice-versa.

Euclid’s Division Algorithm

To  find Highest Common Factor of two positive integers a and b, where a b

Step1: Using Euclid’s division lemma a = bq + r ; 0 ≤ r < b. where q is the quotient, r is the remainder. If r = 0 then b is the Highest Common Factor of a and b.

Step 2: Otherwise applying Euclid’s division lemma divide b by  to  get  b = rq1 + r1, 0 ≤ r1 < r.

Step 3: If r1 = 0 then r is the Highest common factor of a and b.

Step 4: Otherwise using Euclid’s division lemma, repeat the process until we get the remainder zero. In that case, the corresponding divisor is the HCF of a and b.

NOTE

·           The above algorithm will always produce remainder zero at some stage. Hence the algorithm should terminate.

·           Euclid’s Division Algorithm is a repeated application of Division Lemma until we get zero remainder.

·           Highest Common Factor (HCF) of two positive numbers is denoted by (a,b).

·           Highest Common Factor (HCF) is also called as Greatest Common Divisor (GCD)

### Illustration 1

Using the above Algorithm, let us find HCF of two given positive integers. Let a= 273and b = 119 be the two given positive integers such that a > b .

We start dividing 273 by 119 using Euclid’s division lemma, we get

273 = 119 × 2 + 35          ………..(2)

The remainder is 35 ≠ 0

Therefore, applying Euclid’s Division Algorithm to the divisor 119 and remainder 35, we get

119 = 35 × 3 + 14                   ………..(2)

The remainder is 14 ≠ 0

Applying Euclid’s Division Algorithm to the divisor 35 and remainder 14, we get

35 =14 ×2 + 7                    …(3)

The remainder is 7 ≠ 0.

Applying Euclid’s Division Algorithm to the divisor 14 and remainder 7. we get,

14 =7 × 2 + 0              …(4)

The remainder at this stage= 0.

The divisor at this stage= 7 .

Therefore Highest Common Factor of 273, 119 = 7.

### Example 2.4

If the Highest Common Factor of 210 and 55 is expressible in the form 55x - 325 , find x.

### Solution

Using Euclid’s Division Algorithm, let us find the HCF of given numbers

210 = 55 × 3 + 45

55 = 45 ×1 + 10

45 = 10 × 4 + 5

10 = 5 × 2 + 0

The remainder is zero.

So, the last divisor 5 is the Highest Common Factor (HCF) of 210 and 55.

Since, HCF is expressible in the form 55x − 325 = 5

Gives  55x= 330

Hence x= 6

### Example 2.5

Find the greatest number that will divide 445 and 572 leaving remainders4 and 5 respectively.

### Solution

Since the remainders are 4, 5 respectively the required number is the HCF of the number 445 − 4 = 441, 572 − 5 = 567

Hence, we will determine the HCF of 441 and 567. Using Euclid’s Division Algorithm, we have

567 = 441×1 + 126

441 = 126 × 3 + 63

126 = 63 × 2 + 0

Therefore HCF of 441, 567 = 63 and so the required number is 63.

### Theorem 3

If a, b are two positive integers with a > b then G.C.D of (a,b) = GCD of (a -b,b).

Using this Activity, find the HCF of

(i) 90,15

(ii) 80,25

(iii) 40,16

(iv) 23,12

(v) 93,13

### Highest Common Factor of three numbers

We can apply Euclid’s Division Algorithm twice to find the Highest Common Factor (HCF) of three positive integers using the following procedure.

Let a, b, c be the given positive integers.

(i) Find HCF of a,b. Call it as d

d = (a,b)

(ii) Find HCF of d and c.

This will be the HCF of the three given numbers a, b, c

### Example 2.6

Find the HCF of 396, 504, 636.

### Solution

To find HCF of three given numbers, first we have to find HCF of the first two numbers.

To find HCF of 396 and 504

Using Euclid’s division algorithm we get   504 = 396 ×1 + 108

The remainder is 108 ≠ 0

Again applying Euclid’s division algorithm396 = 108 × 3 + 72

The remainder is 72 ≠ 0,

Again applying Euclid’s division algorithm  108 = 72 ×1 + 36

The remainder is 36 ≠ 0,

Again applying Euclid’s division algorithm 72 = 36 × 2 + 0

Here the remainder is zero. Therefore HCF of 396, 504 = 36 . To find the HCF of 636 and 36.

Using Euclid’s division algorithm we get636 = 36 ×17 + 24

The remainder is 24 ≠ 0

Again applying Euclid’s division algorithm36 = 24 ×1 + 12

The remainder is 12 ≠ 0

Again applying Euclid’s division algorithm 24 = 12 × 2 + 0

Here the remainder is zero. Therefore HCF of 636,36 = 12

Therefore Highest Common Factor of 396, 504 and 636 is 12.

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