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Chapter: Mechanical : Automobile Engineering : Vehicle Structure and Engines

Engine Support Systems

ENGINE SUPPORT SYSTEMS: · Cooling system · Lubrication system · Fuel and ignition/injection system · Intake system Exhaust system



·        Cooling system

·        Lubrication system

·        Fuel and ignition/injection system

·        Intake system Exhaust system



1. Cooling system:


The cooling system removes excess heat to keep the inside of the engine at an efficient temperature.


·      Air Cooling

·      Liquid Cooling


·      Water cooling Coolant. Water Jackets:


Water Jackets Surrounds the cylinders with water passage. Absorbs heat from the cylinder wall. Pump move water to radiator where heat is exchanged to the air. 66


Coolant Flow:


Coolant flows through the water jackets where it absorbs heat. It then flows through the radiator where heat is transferred to the air passing through. The amount of flow is determined by the water pump. The flow direction is controlled by the thermostat.

Warm Engine:


The thermostat opens when the engine warms up. This allows coolant to circulate through the radiator and the water jackets.


Cold Engine:


When an engine is cold, the thermostat is cold. Coolant flow is through the bypass hose and the water jackets. This allows the engine to warm up evenly.


Coolant :

·        Coolant Water (Boiling Point 100° C)

·        Glycerin (Boiling Point 290 ° C)

·        Ethylene glycol (Boiling Point 197 ° C)

·        Antifreeze (methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol )


Cooling System:


·        Water pump is driven by the crankshaft through Timing Belt ( Keeps Cam and Crank shafts in time)


·        Drive/accessory Belt (Runs alternator, power-steering pump, AC, etc.) Serpentine Belt V-Belt

·        Electric fan is mounted on the radiator and is operated by battery power. It is controlled by the thermostat switch.



Need for cooling system

The cooling  system  has  four  primary  functions. These functions are as follows:


1.          Remove excess heat from the engine.

2.   Maintain  a  constant  engine  operating temperature.


3.          Increase the temperature of a cold engine as quickly as possible.

4.          Provide a means for heater operation (warming the passenger compartment).


Types of cooling system:


The different Types of cooling system are

1.          Air cooling system

2.          Liquid cooling system

3.          Forced circulation system


4.          Pressure cooling system


Air-Cooled  System :


The simplest type of cooling is the air-cooled, or direct, method in which the heat is drawn off by moving air in direct contact with the engine Several fundamental principles of cooling are embodied in this type of engine cooling. The rate of the cooling is dependent upon the following:


1.          The area exposed to the cooling medium.

2.          The heat conductivity of the metal used &

the volume of the metal or its size in cross section .

3.          The amount of air flowing over the heated surfaces.


4.          The difference in temperature between the exposed metal surfaces and the cooling air.


Liquid-cooled  system;


Nearly all multi cylinder engines used in automotive, construction, and material-handling equipment use a liquid-cooled system. Any liquid used in this type of system is called a COOLANT.


A simple liquid-cooled system consists of a radiator, coolant pump, piping, fan, thermostat, and a system of water jackets and passages in the cylinder head and block through which the coolant circulates. Some vehicles are equipped with a coolant distribution tube inside the cooling passages that directs additional coolant to the points where temperatures are highest.


Cooling of the engine parts is accomplished by keeping the coolant circulating and in contact with the metal surfaces to be cooled. The operation of a liquid- cooled system is as follows:


The pump draws the coolant from the bottom of the radiator, forcing the coolant through the water jackets and passages, and ejects it into the upper radiator tank. The coolant then passes through a set of tubes to the bottom of the radiator from which the cooling cycle begins.

The radiator is situated in front of a fan that is driven either by the water pump or an electric motor. The fan ensures airflow through the radiator at times when there is no vehicle motion. The downward flow of coolant through the radiator creates what is known as a thermosiphon action. This simply means that as the coolant is heated in the jackets of the engine, it expands. As it expands, it becomes less dense and therefore lighter. This causes it to flow out of the top outlet of the engine and into the top tank of the radiator. As the coolant is cooled in the radiator, it again becomes more dense and heavier. This causes the coolant to settle to the bottom tank of the radiator.


The heating in the engine and the cooling in the radiator therefore create a natural circulation that aids the water pump. The amount of engine heat that must be removed by the cooling system is much greater than is generally realized. To handle this heat load, it may be necessary for the cooling system in some engine to circulate 4,000 to 10,000 gallons of coolant per hour. The water passages, the size of the pump and radiator, and other details are so designed as to maintain the working parts of the engine at the most efficient temperature within the limitation imposed by the coolant.



Pressure cooling system


Radiator Pressure Cap


The radiator pressure cap is used on nearly all of the modern engines. The radiator cap locks onto the radiator tank filler neck Rubber or metal seals make the cap-to-neck joint airtight. The functions of the pressure cap are as follows:

1.     Seals the top of the radiator tiller neck to prevent leakage.

2. Pressurizes system to raise boiling point of coolant.

3. Relieves excess pressure to protect against system damage.

4. In a closed system, it allows coolant flow into and from the coolant reservoir.


The radiator cap pressure valve consists of a spring- loaded disc that contacts the filler neck. The spring pushes the valve into the neck to form a seal. Under pressure, the boiling point of water increases. Normally water boils at 212°F.


However, for every pound of pressure increase, the boiling point goes up 3°F. Typical radiator cap pressure is 12 to 16 psi. This raises the boiling point of the engine coolant to about 250°F to 260°F. Many surfaces inside the water jackets can be above 212°F. If the engine overheats and the pressure exceeds the cap rating, the pressure valve opens. Excess pressure forces coolant out of the overflow tube and into the reservoir or onto the ground.


This prevents high pressure from rupturing the radiator, gaskets, seals, or hoses. The radiator cap vacuum valve opens to allow reverse flow back into the radiator when the coolant temperature drops after engine operation. It is a smaller valve located in the center, bottom of the cap.


The cooling and contraction of the coolant and air in the system could decrease coolant volume and pressure. Outside atmospheric pressure could then crush inward on the hoses and radiator. Without a cap vacuum or vent valve, the radiator hose and radiator could collapse.



2. Lubrication System:


Parts require lubrications Crankshaft bearing Piston pin Timing gears Valve mechanism Piston ring and cylinder walls Camshaft and bearings.


Purpose of lubrication:


·        Reduce friction & wear - by creating a thin film (Clearance) between moving parts

·        Seal power - The oil helps form a gastight seal between piston rings and cylinder walls


·        Cleaning - Cleans As it circulates through the engine, the oil picks up metal particles and carbon, and brings them back down to the pan.


·        Absorb shock - When heavy loads are imposed on the bearings, the oil helps to cushion the load


·        Cooling. - Cools Picks up heat when moving through the engine and then drops into the cooler oil pan, giving up some of this heat.


Types Lubrication System:


·        Petroil system

·        Splash system

·        Pressure system

·        Dry-sump system


Oil change:


·        Every 5000Km for four wheeler , Every 2000 Km in two wheeler Ignoring regular oil change intervals will shorten engine life and performance.


All internal combustion engines are equipped with an internal lubricating system. Without lubrication, an engine quickly overheats and its working parts seize due to excessive friction. All moving parts must be adequately lubricated to assure maximum wear and long engine life.


Purpose of Lubrication;


The functions of an engine lubrication system are as follows: Reduces friction and wear between moving parts. Helps transfer heat and cool engine parts. Cleans the inside of the engine by removing contaminants (metal, dirt, plastic, rubber, and other particles).


Absorbs shocks between moving parts to quiet engine operation and increase engine life. The properties of engine oil and the design of modern engines allow the lubrication system to accomplish these functions.

Types of Lubrication Systems;


Now that you are familiar with the lubricating system components, you are ready to study the different systems that circulate oil through the engine. The systems used to circulate oil are known as splash, combination splash force feed, force feed, and full force-feed.


Splash Systems


The splash system is no longer used in automotive engines. It is widely used in small four-cycle engines for lawn mowers, outboard marine operation, and so on. In the splash lubricating system, oil is splashed up from the oil pan or oil trays in the lower part of the crankcase.


The oil is thrown upward as droplets or fine mist and provides adequate lubrication to valve mechanisms, piston pins, cylinder walls, and piston rings. In the engine, dippers on the connecting-rod bearing caps enter the oil pan with each crankshaft revolution to produce the oil splash.


A passage is drilled in each connecting rod from the dipper to the bearing to ensure lubrication. This system is too uncertain for automotive applications. One reason is that the level of oil in the crankcase will vary greatly the amount of lubrication received by the engine. A high level results in excess lubrication and oil consumption and a slightly low level results in inadequate lubrication and failure of the engine.


Combination Splash and Force Feed


In a combination splash and force feed, oil is delivered to some parts by means of splashing and other parts through oil passages under pressure from the oil pump. The oil from the pump enters the oil galleries. From the oil galleries, it flows to the main bearings and camshaft bearings.


The main bearings have oil-feed holes or grooves that feed oil into drilled passages in the crankshaft. The oil flows through these passages to the connecting rod bearings. From there, on some engines, it flows through holes drilled in the connecting rods to the piston-pin bearings. Cylinder walls are lubricated by splashing oil thrown off from the connecting-rod bearings.


Some engines use small troughs under each connecting rod that are kept full by small nozzles which deliver oil under pressure from the oil pump. These oil nozzles deliver an increasingly heavy stream as speed increases. At very high speeds these oil streams are powerful enough to strike the dippers directly. This causes a much heavier splash so that adequate lubrication of the pistons and the connecting-rod bearings is provided at higher speeds. If a combination system is used on an overhead valve engine, the upper valve train is lubricated by pressure from the pump.


Force Feed


A somewhat more complete pressurization of lubrication is achieved in the force-feed lubrication system. Oil is forced by the oil pump from the crankcase to the main bearings and the camshaft bearings. Unlike the combination system the connecting-rod bearings are also fed oil under pressure from the pump. Oil passages are drilled in the crankshaft to lead oil to the connecting-rodbearings.

The passages deliver oil from the main bearing journals to the rod bearing journals. In some engines, these opening are holes that line up once for every crankshaft revolution. In other engines, there are annular grooves in the main bearings through which oil can feed constantly into the hole in the crankshaft. The pressurized oil that lubricates the connecting- rod bearings goes on to lubricate the pistons and walls by squirting out through strategically drilled holes. This lubrication system is used in virtually all engines that are equipped with semi floating piston pins.


Full Force Feed


In a full force-feed lubrication system, the main bearings, rod bearings, camshaft bearings, and the complete valve mechanism are lubricated by oil under pressure. In addition, the full force-feed lubrication system provides lubrication under pressure to the pistons and the piston pins.


This is accomplished by holes drilled the length of the connecting rod, creating an oil passage from the connecting rod bearing to the piston pin bearing. This passage not only feeds the piston pin bearings but also provides lubrication for the pistons and cylinder walls. This system is used in virtually all engines that are equipped with full-floating piston pins.



Four-stroke Spark-ignition Engine


In a four-stroke engine, the cycle of operations is completed in four strokes of the piston or two revolutions of the crankshaft. During the four strokes, there are five events to be completed, viz, suction, compression, combustion, expansion and exhaust. Each stroke consists of 180° of crankshaft rotation and hence a four-stroke cycle is completed through 720° of crank rotation. The cycle of operation for an ideal four-stroke SI engine consists of the following four strokes:


i.       Suction or intake stroke;


ii.     Compression stroke;


iii.  Expansion or power stroke and


iv.  Exhaust stroke.


Working principle of a Four Stroke SI Engine


i.  Suction or Intake Stroke: Suction stroke starts when the piston is at the top dead centre and about to move downwards. The inlet valve is open at this time and the exhaust valve is closed. Due to the suction created by the motion of the piston towards the bottom dead centre, the charge consisting of fuel-air mixture is drawn into the cylinder. When the piston reaches the bottom dead centre the suction stroke ends and the inlet valve closes.


Compression Stroke: The charge taken into the cylinder during the suction stroke is compressed by the return stroke of the piston. During this stroke both inlet and exhaust valves are in closed position. The mixture that fills the entire cylinder volume is now compressed into the clearance volume. At the end of the compression stroke the mixture is ignited with the help of a spark plug located on the cylinder head. In ideal engines it is assumed that burning takes place instantaneously when the piston is at the top dead centre and hence the burning process can be approximated as heat addition at constant volume.


During the burning process the chemical energy of the fuel is converted into heat energy producing a temperature rise of about 2000 °C. The pressure at the end of the combustion process is considerably increased due to the heat release from the fuel.


iii. Exhaust Stroke: At the end of the expansion stroke the exhaust valve opens and the inlet valve remains closed. The pressure falls to atmospheric level a part of the burnt gases escape. The piston starts moving from the bottom dead centre to top dead centre and sweeps the burnt gases out from the cylinder almost at atmospheric pressure.


The exhaust valve closes when the piston reaches T.D.C. at the end of the exhaust stroke and some residual gases trapped in the clearance volume remain in the cylinder. Residual gases mix with the fresh charge coming in during the following cycle, forming its working fluid.

Each cylinder of a four stroke engine completes the above four operations in two engine


revolutions, one revolution of the crankshaft occurs during the suction and compression strokes and the second revolution during the power and exhaust strokes. Thus for one complete cycle there’s


only one power stroke while the crankshaft turns by two revolutions.


Consumption of lubricating oil is high in two-stroke engines due to higher temperature.


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