Chapter: Civil - Water Resources and Irrigation Engineering - Irrigation Methods

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Drip irrigation Method

Drip irrigation, also called trickle irrigation, is the latest field irrigation technique, and is meant for adoption at places where there exists acute sczrcity of irrigation water and other salt problems.


Drip irrigation Method


 Drip irrigation, also called trickle irrigation, is the latest field irrigation technique, and is meant for adoption at places where there exists acute sczrcity of irrigation water and other salt problems. In this method, water is slowly and directly applied to the root zone of the plants, thereby minimizing the losses by evaporation and percolation.

 

 

This system involves laying of a system of head, mains, submains, laterals, and drop nozzles. Water oozes out of these small drip nozzles uniformly and at a very small rate, directly into the plant roots area.

 

 

The head consists of a pump to lift water, so as to produce the desired pressure of about 2.5 atmosphere, for ensuring proper flow of water through the system. The lifted irrigation water is passed through a fertilizer tank, so as to mix the fertilizer directly in the irrigation water, and then through a filter, so as to remove the suspended particles from the water, to avoid clogging of drip nozzles.

 

 

The mains and submains are the specially designed small sied pipes, made of flexible material like black PVC. These are generally buried or laid on the ground, as shown in fig. Their sizes should be sufficient to carry the design discharge of the system.

 

The laterals are very small sized (usually 1 to 1.25 cm dia), specially designed, black PVC pipes, taking off from the mains or submains, Laterals can usually be up to 50 m long, and one lateral line is laid for each row of crop. Hardie Biwall is a patented name of a special dual chambered micro tubing, manufactured from a linear low density polyethylene, and is being used these days for laterals.

 

 

The drip nozzles, also called emitters, or valves, are fixed on laterals, at regular intervals of about 0.5 to 1 m or so, discharging water at very small rates of the order of 2 to 10 litres per hour.

 

 

Like the sprinkler system, this method also involves specialized knowledge, and is not being adopted by our ordinary farmers. This method, is howeer, being used for small nurseries, orchards, or gardens. The widely known commercial Indian Company, which specialses in this

 

field            irrigation   method,   is   known   as   ‚Jain   Irr

Code: 425001. This firm can be contacted in special needs for layout of such an irrigation system.



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