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Chapter: Environmental Engineering : Planning For Water Supply System

Consumption of water Uses

1. Domestic use 2. Commercial use 3. Public use 4. Loss and waste

Consumption of  water Uses


1.     Domestic use

2.     Commercial use

3.     Public use

4.     Loss and waste



Domestic use of water:


Domestic uses of water include the consumption of water for drinking, washing, cooking, toilets, livestock etc. the domestic average use per capita per day is 50 - 90 gallons (70 - 380 liters per capita per day). This use is increasing by 0.5% - 1.0% per year and at this time comprises 50% of all the uses of water.


Water uses are for drinking, cooking, meeting of sanitary needs in houses and hotels, irrigating lawns etc. Residential water use rates fluctuate regularly.

Average daily winter consumption is less than annual daily average, whereas summer consumption averages are greater. Similarly, peak hourly demand, is higher than maximum. No universally applied rule for prediction


Commercial and industrial:


This is the amount of water used by the shops, markets, industries, factories etc. It contributes 15

- 24% of total use of water.


It includes factories, offices and commercial places demand. It is based on either having a separate or combined water supply system. Demand of water based on unit production: No. of persons working and floor area


Public use:


The public use of water is that one which is used by city halls, jails, hospitals, offices, schools etc. This consumes 9% of total use of water. Its water demand is 50 - 75 liters per capita per day. Fire protection's need of water is also fulfilled by this sector. The fire demand does not greatly affect the average consumption but has a considerable effect on peak rates. Schools, hospitals, fire fighting etc


Loss and wastes:


: Unauthorized, connections; leakage in distribution system, Hydrant flushing, major line breakage and cleaning of streets, irrigating parks. Total consumption is sum of the above demands. The water which is not intended for specific purpose or use is also called "Un-accounted for". Loss and wastage of water is due to:


1.     Errors in measurements

2.     Leakages, evaporation or overflow

3.     Un-metered uses e.g. fire fighting, main flushing

4.     Un-authorized connections



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