Concepts of Industrial Relations.
The Term ―Industrial Relations‖ commonly denotes ―employee – employee relations‖, in both organized and unorganized sectors of the economy. Industrial Relations (also known as labour – management relations or labour relations) will be treated here as the study of employee – employer relationship and the outcome of such relationship.
According to Kapoor defined as the ―Industrial Relations is a developing and dynamic concept and such no more limits itself merely to the complex relations between the unions and management but also refers to the general web of relationships normally obtaining between employees – a web much more complex than the single concept of labour capital conflict‖.
Features of Industrial Relations
Ø Industrial Relation do not emerge in vacuum they are born of employment relationship in an industrial setting. Without the existence of the two parties, i.e., labour and management, this relationship cannot exist.
Ø It provides the environment for industrial relations.
Ø Industrial Relation are characterized by both conflict and co-operations.
Ø The focus of Industrial Relations in on the study of the attitudes, relationships, practices and procedure developed by the contending parties to resolve or at least minimize conflicts.
The main objectives of industrial relations system are
Ø To safeguard the interest of labor and management by securing the highest level of mutual understanding and good-will among all those sections in the industry which participate in the process of production.
Ø To avoid industrial conflict or strife and develop harmonious relations, which are an essential factor in the productivity of workers and the industrial progress of a country.
Ø To raise productivity to a higher level in an era of full employment by lessening the tendency to high turnover and frequency absenteeism.
To establish and promote the growth of an industrial democracy based on labor partnership in the sharing of profits and of managerial decisions, so that ban individuals personality may grow its full stature for the benefit of the industry and of the country as well.
Ø To eliminate or minimize the number of strikes, lockouts and gheraos by providing reasonable wages, improved living and working conditions, said fringe benefits.
Ø To improve the economic conditions of workers in the existing state of industrial managements and political government.
Ø Socialization of industries by making the state itself a major employer
Ø Vesting of a proprietary interest of the workers in the industries in which they are employed.
Scope of industrial relations
Ø Protecting the interest of the employees
Ø Providing reasonable wages to employees
Ø Providing safe and hygienic working conditions
Ø Providing social security measures
Ø Maintaining strong Trade Unions
Ø Collective bargaining
Industrial peace and democracy could be developed and maintained by:
Ø Settlement of industrial disputes through mutual understanding and agreements
Ø By evolving various statutory measures
Ø By formation of various machineries such as works committee, boards of conciliation labour courts etc.
Ø Workers participation in management
Ø Recognizing human rights
The main aspects of Industrial Relations are:-
Ø Labor Relations, i.e. relations between union and management
Ø Employer-employees relations, i.e. relations between management and employees
Ø Group relations, i.e. relations between various groups of workmen
Ø Community or Public relations, i.e. relations between industry and society.
Ø Promotions and development of healthy labor-managements relations.
Ø Maintenance of industrial peace and avoidance of industrial strife
Ø Development of true industrial Democracy