Booting of computer
An Operating system (OS) is a basic software that makes the computer to work. When a computer is switched on, there is no information in its RAM.At the same time, in ROM, the pre-written program called POST (Power on Self Test) will be executed first. This program checks if the devices like RAM, keyboard, etc., are connected properly and ready to operate. If these devices are ready, then the BIOS (Basic Input Output System) gets executed. This process is called Booting. Thereafter, a program called “Bootstrap Loader” transfers OS from hard disk into main memory. Now the OS gets loaded (Windows/Linux, etc.,) and will get executed. Booting process is of two types.
Cold Booting: When the system starts from initial state i.e. it is switched on, we call it cold booting or Hard Booting. When the user presses the Power button, the instructions are read from the ROM to initiate the booting process.
Warm Booting: When the system restarts or when Reset button is pressed, we call it Warm Booting or Soft Booting. The system does not start from initial state and so all diagnostic tests need not be carried out in this case. There are chances of data loss and system damage as the data might not have been stored properly.