1. Which of the following regio n has maximum biodiversity
b) Tropical forest
c) Temperate rain forest
Answer: b) Tropical
2. Conservation of biodiversity within their natural habitat is
a) Insitu conservation
b) Exsitu conservation
c) In vivo conservation
d) In vitro conservation
3. Which one of the following is not coming under insitu conservation
b) Natural parks
c) Zoological park
d) Biosphere reserve
Answer: c) Zoological
4. Which of the following is considered a hotspots of biodiversity in India
a) Western ghats
b) Indo-gangetic plain
c) Eastern Himalayas
d) A and C
Answer: d) A and C
5. The organization which published the red list of species is
6. Who introduced the term biodiversity?
a) Edward Wilson
b) Walter Rosen
c) Norman Myers
d) Alice Norman
Answer: b) Walter
7. Which of the following forests is known as the lungs of the planet earth?
a) Tundra forest
b) Rain forest of north east India
c) Taiga forest
d) Amazon rain forest
Answer: b) Rain
forest of north east India
8. Which one of the following are at high risk extinction due to habitat destruction
Answer: c) Amphibians
9. Assertion: The Environmental conditions of the tropics are favourable for speciation and diversity of organisms. Reason: The climate seasons, temperature, humidity and photoperiod are more or less stable and congenial.
a) Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason explains Assertion correctly.
b) Both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
c) Assertion is true , but Reason is false.
d) Both Assertion and Reason are false.
Answer: a) Both
Assertion and Reason are true and Reason explain Assertion correctly
10. Define endemism.
Endemism is an ecological word that a plant or animal
lives only in a particular location such as specific island, (or) defined zone.
For example wild ass is endemic to Indian desert.
11. How many hotspots are there in India? Name them.
There are 4 hot spots in India
a) Himalaya (the entire Indian Himalayan region)
b) Western Ghats
c) Indo - Burma includes entire North - eastern India except Assam & Andaman group of Island
d) Sundalands includes Nicobar groups of Islands
12. What are the three levels of biodiversity?
a) Genetic diversity
b) Species diversity
c) Community ecosystem diversity.
13. Name the active chemical found in the medicinal plant Rauwolfia vomitoria. What type of diversity it belongs to?
Reserpine is the active chemical found in the medicinal plant Rouwolfia vomituria. It belongs to genetic diversity.
14. “Amazon forest is considered to be the lungs of the planet”-Justify this statement.
The Amazon in South America is over 2.1 million square miles of rainforest, which in more than half of the rain forest on the entire planet. Trees release Oxygen into the air during photosynthesis.
Hence the Amazon is considered to be the lungs of the planet because it is responsible for more production of oxygen.
15. ‘Red data book’-What do you know about it?
1) 'Rd data book' is a catalogue of taxa facing risk of extinction.
2) WCU (World conservation union) maintains Red data book.
AIMS OF RED DATA BOOk :
a) Provide global index on declining biodiversity.
b) Preparing conservation priorities & help in conservation of action.
Red list has 8 categories of species.
2) Extinct in wild
3) Critically endangered
6) Lower risk
7) Data deficiency
8) Not evaluated
16. Extinction of a keystone species led to loss of biodiversity – Justify.
1) Species is considered extinct when none of its members are alive any where in the world.
2) In the 450 million years of life on earth there had been 5 mass extinctions, which had eliminated at least 50% of the species of flora and fauna on the globe.
3) The extinction of species is due to environmental changes and population characteristics.
4) Amphibians seem tobe at higher risk of extinction because at habitat destruction.
5) Thus the most serious aspect of the loss of biodiversity in the extinction of species.
17. Compare and Contrast the insitu and exsitu conservation.
1. It is the on-site conservation or the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant (or) animal species
2. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal in its natural habitat either by protecting or restoring the habitat itself or by defending the species from predators.
3. National Parks, Biosphere Reserve, wild life sanctuaries form insitu conservation strategies
1. This is a conservation strategy which involves placing of threatened animals and plants in special core locations for their protection.
2. It helps in preventing their extinction under simulated conditions that closely resemble their natural habitats.
3. Zoological parts and Botanical gardens are common exsitu conservation programs.
18. What are called endangered species? Explain with examples.
1. A species that has been categorized as very likely to become extinct is an endangered species.
2. Endangered as categorized by the IUCN.
3. Red list is the second most severe conservation status for wild animals in the IUCN's scheme after Critically Endangered [CR]
4. In 1998 there were 1102 animals and 1197 plant species in the IUCN Red list.
5. In 2012, there were 3079 animal and 2655 plant species as endangered worldwide.
6. Examples for EN species.
a) Mountain Gorilla b) Giant panda c) Monarch butterfly
19. Why do we find a decrease in biodiversity distribution, if we move from the tropics towards the poles?
1. Temperature, Precipitation, distance from the equator, altitude from asea level are some of the factors that determine biodiversity distribution patterns.
2. There is an increasing diversity from the poles to equator.
3. Harsh conditions exist in temperate areas during the cold seasons while very harsh conditions prevail for most of the year in polar regions.
4. Decrease in species diversity occurs as one ascends a high mountain due to drop in temperature.
THE REASONS FOR THE RICHNESS OF BIODIVERSITY IN THE TROPICS ARE:
a) The temperature vary between 25°C to 35°C a range in which most metabolic activities of living organisms occur with ease and efficiency.
b) The average rainfall is softer more than 200 mm per year.
c) Climate, season, temperature, humidity photoperiods are more or less stumble and encourage both variety and numbers.
d) Rich resource and nutrient availability.
20. What are the factors that drive habitat loss?
1) Natural habitats are destroyed for the purpose of settlement, agriculture, mining, industries and construction of highways.
2) Over population, urbanization, industrialization and agricultural advancement require additional land, H2O, & raw materials. This is possible only through fragmentation (or) destruction of natural habitats.
3) The Amazon rain forest a vast area, harbouring millions of spices also called 'Lungs of the planet' is destroyed and being replaced for agriculture & human settlements.
4) Kodaikanal & Nilgiri hills have been destroyed rapidly for human occupancy.
21. Where are biodiversity hotspots normally located? Why?
1) Hot spots are areas characterized with high concentration of endemic species.
2) currently 34 biodiversity hotspots have been identified most of which occur in tropical forest.
3) India is home to 4 biodiversity hot spots.
They are a) Himalaya, b)Western ghats, c)Indo-Burma, d)Sundalands.
22. Why is biodiversity so important and worthy of protection?
Biodiversity is essential for the well being of our planet and sustenance of life as a whole. The major functional attributes are!
1) Continuity of nutrient cycles or biogas chemical cycles (N2,C,H2O,P, S.cycles)
2) Soi formation, conditioning or maintenance of soil health by soil microbial diversity along with the different tropic members.
3) Increase eco system productivity & provide food resources.
4) Act as water traps, filters, water flow regulators and water purifiers.
5) Climate stability, rain fall, temperature regulation,CO2 absorption which in turn regulate the density & type of vegetation.
6) Forest resource management and sustainable development.
7) Maintaining balance between biotic components.
8) Cleaning up of pollution - microbes are the biggest degraders of molecules. Which are present in effluents,sewage, garbage & agro chemicals.
9) Bio diverse regions are reservoirs of biological resources like food resources, gene pool, genetic resource, medicinal resource, bio- prospecting.
10) Bio diversity provides unique aesthetic values and hot spots for Ecotourism.
11) It is an indicator of the health of the eco system Endemism is a cracial indicator of richness.
23. Why do animals have greater diversification than plant diversity?
The animal have higher percent than the species diversity of plants because they are mobile and move from one place to another. They move to different habitatal eco system and developed species diversity.
24. Alien species invasion is a threat to endemic species – substantiate this statement.
1) Ecotic species (alien) are organism as often introduced deliberately for commercial purpose as biological control agents & other uses.
2) They often become invasive and drive away the local species.
3) Ecotic species have proved harmful to coin aquatic and terrestrial eco system.
4) Amazon sailfin catfish is responsible for destroying the fish population in the wetland of Kolkata.
5) African apple snail (Achatina fulica) is most invasive among all alien fauna in India. More over it is becoming a vicious pest in vegetable farms.
6) Exotic earth worm compete for food with native varieties and deplete their population in soil.
25. Mention the major threats to biodiversity caused by human activities. Explain.
1) Even though India is one of the 17 identified mega diverse countries of the world, it faces lots of threats to its biodiversity.
2) Apart from natural causes, human activities both directly & indirectly are today's main reason for habitat loss and biodiversity loss.
3) Fragmentation & degradation due to agricultural Practices, extraction & development leads to habitat loss.
4) Fragmentation leads to small & scattered populations & as endangered species.
5) Other threats include specialised diet, habitat requirement, large size, limited geographic distribution and commercial value.
26. What is mass extinction? Will you encounter one such extinction in the near future. Enumerate the steps to be taken to prevent it.
1) The earth has experienced quite a few mass extinction due to environmental catastrophes.
2) It occurred about 225 million years ago during the Persian where 90% of shallow water marine in vertebrates disappeared.
i) Give places back to nature
ii) Change the way we view nature
iii) Change our economic system so it values nature
iv) End public subsidies the damage nature.
v) Make pollution free environment.
27. In north eastern states, the jhum culture is a major threat to biodiversity – substantiate.
1) In shifting cultivation, plots of natural free vegetation are burnt away and the cleared patches are farmed for 2-3 seasons after which their fertility reduces to a point.
2) The farmer then abandons this patch and cuts down a new patch of forest trees else where for crop production.
3) When vast areas are cleared and burnt it results in loss of forest cover, pollution and discharge of CO2
4) It leads to loss of habitat and climate change. Which has an impact on the biodiversity of that region.
28. List out the various causes for biodiversity losses.
The major causes for biodiversity decline are :
1) Habitat loss, fragmentation & destruction.
2) Pollution & Pollutants (smog, pesticide oil silks, GHGS)
3) Climate change
4) Introduction of exotic species.
5) Over exploitation of resources (poaching cutting of trees, over fishing, hunting)
6) Intensive agriculture and aqua cultural practices.
7) Hybridization between native & non native species & loss of native species.
8) Natural disasters (Tsunami, forest fire, earthquake, volcanoes)
9) Industrialization, urbanization, transport - Roads shipping activity.
10) Communication towers, unregulated tourism & monoculture are common area of specific threats.
29. How can we contribute to promote biodiversity conservation?
GENERAL STRATEGIES IN BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
1) Identify & protect all threatened species.
2) Identify & conserve in protected areas the wild relatives of all the economically important organisms
3) Identify & protect critical habitats for feeding, breeding, nursing, resting of each species.
4) Resting, feeding & breeding places of the organisms should be identified & protected.
5) Air, H2O & soil should be conserved on priority basis.
6) Wild life protection Act should be implemented.
30. ‘Stability of a community depends upon its species diversity’ Justify the statement.
1) Bio diversity is the variety of life on earth. That is it is the number of different species of flora & fauna including micro organisms.
2) These organisms can inhabit different ecosystem with varying conditions like the Rainforest, coral reef, Grass land, Desert & Tundra.
3) This variety is essential for the well being of our planet and sustenance of life as a whole.
4) Bio diversity helps to maintain ecological processes, create soil, recycle nutrients, influence climate and control disease.
5) It provides an index of health of an eco system.
6) Thus the survival of human race depends on the existence and well being of all life forms in the biosphere.
31. Write a note on i) Protected areas, ii) Wild life sanctuaries, iii) WWF.
PROTECTED AREAS :
1) Protected areas include National parks, wild life sanctuaries, community reserves and biosphere reserve.
2) There are about 37,000 protected areas world wide.
3) India has about TTI protected areas which includes 104 national parks, 544 wild life sanctuaries, 18 biosphere.
4) No human activity is permitted inside the national park.
WILD LIFE SANCTUARIES (WLS)
1) Any Area other than the area comprised with any reserve forest or the territorial water can be notified by the state government to constitute as a sanctuary.
2) This is far the purpose of protecting, endangered species.
3) Sanctuaries are tracts of land where unit animal and fauna can take refuge without being hunted (or) poached.
4) Other activities like collection of forest products, harvesting of timber are permitted.
5) Periyar wild life sanctuary in Kerala is famous for the Indian Tiger and Asiatic Elephant.
WWF; WORLD WIDE FUND FOR NATURE.
1) It is an international non government organization founded in 1961.
2) This organization is working in the field at the wilderness preservation and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
3) The main aim is to stop the degradation of natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature.
Extra One mark Questions and Answers
1. Select the correct statement about biodiversity
a) Large scale planting of Bt cotton has no adverse effect on biodiversity.
b) Western Ghats have a very high degree of species richness and endemism
c) Conservation of biodiversity is just a fad pursued by the developed countries.
d) The desert areas of Rajasthan and Gujarat have a very high level of desert animal species as well as numerous rare animals.
2. Sacred groves are specially useful in
a) Preventing soil erosion
b) Year-round flow of water in rivers
c) Conserving rare and threatened species
d) Generating environmental awareness
3. The highest number of species in the world is represented by
4. Which of the following is not used for ex situ plant conservation?
a) Field gene banks
b) Seed banks
c) Shifting cultivation
d) Botanical gardens
5. In which of the following both pairs have correct combination?
a) In situ conservation: National Park,
Ex situ conservation: Botanical Garden
b) In situ conservation: Cryopreservation,
Ex situ conservation: Wildlife Sanctuary
c) In situ conservation: Seed Bank,
Ex situ conservation: National park
d) In situ conservation: Tissue culture,
Ex situ conservation: Sacred groves
6. Cryopreservation of gametes of threatened species in viable and fertile condition can be referred to as
a) In situ conservation of biodiversity
b) Advanced ex situ conservation of biodiversity
c) In situ conservation by sacred groves
d) In situ cryo-conservation of biodiversity
7. The species confined to a particular region and not
found elsewhere is termed as
8. Which of the following National Parks is home to the famous musk deer or hangal?
a) Bandhavgarh National Park, Madhya Pradesh
b) Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh
c) Dachigam National Park, Jammu & Kashmir
d) Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur