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# Balancing of Inertial Forces in the Multi-Cylinder Engine

In multi-cylinder engines the mutual counteractions of the various components in the Crank shaft assembly are one of the essential factors determining the selection of the Crank shafts configuration and with it the design of the engine itself.

BALANCING OF INERTIAL FORCES IN THE MULTI-CYLINDER ENGINE:

In multi-cylinder engines the mutual counteractions of the various components in the Crank shaft assembly are one of the essential factors determining the selection of the Crank shafts configuration and with it the design of the engine itself. The inertial forces are Balanced if the common centre of gravity for all moving crankshaft-assembly components lies at the crankshaft's midpoint, i.e. if the crankshaft is symmetrical (as viewed from the front). The crankshaft's symmetry level can be defined using geometrical representations of 1st - and 2nd-order forces (star diagrams). The 2nd order star diagram for the four-cylinder in-line engine is asymmetrical, meaning that this order is characterized by substantial free inertial Forces. These forces can be balanced using two countershafts rotating in opposite directions at double the rate of the crankshaft (Lanchester system).

BALANCING OF SINGLE CYLINDER ENGINE:

A single cylinder engine produces three main vibrations. In describing them we will assume that the cylinder is vertical. Firstly, in an engine with no balancing counterweights, there would be an enormous vibration produced by the change in momentum of the piston, gudgeon pin, connecting rod and crankshaft once every revolution. Nearly all single-cylinder crankshafts incorporate balancing weights to reduce this. While these weights can balance the crankshaft completely, they cannot completely balance the motion of the piston, for two reasons.

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