There are a few basic principles and techniques for designing algorithms.

**Algorithm Design Techniques**

There are a few basic principles
and techniques for designing algorithms.

**1. Specification: **The first step in problem** **solving is to state the problem
precisely. A problem is specified in terms of the input given and the output
desired. The specification must also state the properties of the given input,
and the relation between the input and the output.

**2. Abstraction: **A problem can involve a** **lot of details. Several of these
details are unnecessary for solving the problem. Only a few details are
essential. Ignoring or hiding unnecessary details and modeling an entity only
by its essential properties is known as abstraction. For example, when we
represent the state of a process, we select only the variables essential to the
problem and ignore inessential details.

**3. Composition: **An algorithm is** **composed of assignment and control
flow statements. A control flow statement tests a condition of the state and,
depending on the value of the condition, decides the next statement to be
executed.

**4. Decomposition: **We divide the main** **algorithm into functions. We
construct each function independently of the main algorithm and other
functions. Finally, we construct the main algorithm using the functions. When
we use the functions, it is enough to know the specification of the function.
It is not necessary to know how the function is implemented.

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11th Computer Science : Chapter 6 : Specification and Abstraction : Algorithm Design Techniques |

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