“When women moves forward; the family moves, the village
moves and the nation moves” said by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
Women entrepreneurs are those who venture out into industrial
activities. They take the lead and organize the business or industry and
provide employment to others. They are key players in economic development of
the country. Indian women have increasing opportunities in higher levels of
education, economic necessities and constitutional rights.
The knowledge of dress designing lays a strong foundation for
women entrepreneurs. “A women entrepreneur can be defined as a confident,
innovative and creative woman capable of achieving self-economic independence
individually or in collaboration, generates employment opportunities for others
through initiating, establishing and running the enterprise by keeping pace
with her personal, family and social life” - Kamal Singh.
Women occupy almost 50% of the population, hence to attain
complete development they must also take up jobs or become entrepreneurs
To raise the status of women in society
Economic and social development of women will also lead to the
political development of the country.
The women entrepreneurs play multiple roles doing various
activities at home as well as in the working spot thereby satisfying every one.
The figure 13.4 above shows the multiple roles of a women entrepreneurs
Women start an enterprise due to economic and non-economic
reasons. Some of the reasons for a woman to start an enterprise are stated
The motivational factors which encourage women to set up an
Government policies and programmes
success stories of friends and relatives
family occupation and
role model to others.
The facilitating factors which influence the women to set up
contacts and networks
skilled people at work
adequate financial facilities and
Various problems faced by Indian women who strive hard to become
entrepreneur are as follows;
Obtaining support of bankers, managing working capital, lack of
credit resources are the problems which remain in the male domain.
Shortage of Raw Materials
They encounter problems of shortage of raw materials. This is due
to inadequate facilities.
Women are often denied credit by bankers on the ground of collateral
security. So women’s access to risk capital is limited.
Women entrepreneurs face the problems in marketing their products.
This area is mainly dominated by males. The elimination of middlemen is
difficult and the women entrepreneurs are unable to capture the market and make
their products popular.
High Cost of Production
High cost of production brings down the efficiency and stands in
the way of development and expansion of women’s enterprises. The problems faced
are labour, human resources, infrastructure, legal formalities, overload of
work, lack of family support etc.
Women are seen with suspicious eyes, Particularly, in rural areas
they face this problem. The issues related to caste and religion also influence
the opportunities for women entrepreneurs.
Most of the women enterprises have imperfect organizational set
up. They are facing severe competitions from organized industries.
Lack of Information
Women entrepreneurs lack knowledge and information about the
availability of raw materials, financial facilities, government schemes and
various kinds of subsidies available. This hinders the expansion of their
Lack of Self-Confidence
Due to lack of self-confidence, they hesitate to take risks. Their risk bearing capacity is less. Not only women entrepreneur but also the men entrepreneur face certain problems in initiating and running the business on their own. For overcoming such obstacles one has to attend the entrepreneurial developmental programmes for obtaining appropriate training.