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What are the signs and symptoms of increased ICP?
Gradual, chronic increases in ICP cause few signs and symptoms. Symptoms of acute intracranial hypertension are likely caused by decreased CPP resulting in cerebral ischemia and/or mechanical forces on the brainstem, which thrust intracranial contents through the foramen magnum. These may include headache, nausea or vomiting, and mental status changes. Acute increases in ICP can cause loss of con-sciousness, hypertension and bradycardia, absent brainstem reflexes, cranial nerve dysfunction, decerebrate posturing, apnea or irregular respiration, fixed and dilated pupils, as well as death due to impaired medullary perfusion.
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