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Chapter: 11th Commerce : Warehousing

Types of Warehouses

Warehouses can be classified as follows: A. On the Basis of Ownership B. On the Basis of Commodities Stored

Types of Warehouses

Warehouses can be classified as follows:

 

A. On the Basis of Ownership

a. Private Warehouses

b. Government Warehouses

c. Public Warehouses

d. Co-operative Warehouses

e. Bonded Warehouses

f. Institutional Warehouses

g. Distribution Centre Warehouses

 

B. On the Basis of Commodities Stored

a. General Warehouses

b. Special Commodity Warehouses

c. Cold Storages or Refrigerated Warehouses

d. Climate Controlled Warehouses

 

A. On the Basis of Ownership

 

a. Private Warehouses

Private warehouses are built and owned by private business enterprises in order to store the products produced by them. They are exclusively for their use and are not meant for other manufacturing or business units.

 

b. Government Warehouses

They are created and  operated  by  the Government to implement the programmes of the Government. Their services mostly available to government only. A detailed study on all the above warehouses is given at the end of this chapter.

 

c. Public Warehouse

It is open for public at large. Most of the business organisations, especially small and medium scale units cannot afford to have their own warehouses. They may be owned by an individual or some agency. These warehouses operate as per the rules and regulations formed by the Government.

 

d. Co-operative Warehouses

There are warehouses owned and managed by the marketing co-operative societies or agricultural co-operative societies. They are set up to provide warehousing facilities to their members. Example, National Co-operative Development Corporation (NCDC).

 

c. Bonded Warehouses

Bonded warehouses are those warehouses, which are licensed by the government to accept storage of imported goods which are not cleared due  to  non-payment  of   customs duty by the importer. Branding can be undertaken  in  the warehouse itself. Bank loans can be obtained by submitting the receipt issued by these warehouses as collateral security. Strict supervision and control is imposed by custom authorities on their operation and functioning.

 

f. Institutional Warehouses

Different institutions and bodies have their own warehouses on account  of  the nature of their operations. For example, Banks, Railways, etc, have their own warehouses for conducting their activities. Various transport agencies also maintain warehouses for storing the goods which are to be despatched and received.

 

g. Distribution Center Warehouses

Goods which need to be temporarily stored for one or two days so that they can be distributed to other offices or customers are stored in Distribution Centers. They are owned by the manufacturer or wholesalers.

 

B. On the Basis of Commodities Stored

 

a. General Warehouses

They are ordinary warehouses which are useful for storing most of the dry food grains, fertilisers, etc. Protective measures against rat, insects, etc. are undertaken by them.

 

b. Special Commodity Warehouses

These warehouses are specially constructed for storing specific type of commodities like tobacco, cotton, wool etc. These warehouses reduce loss of quality and quantity to a great extent. Storage ofpetrol andoilrequires special type of vertical, cylindrical storage tanks.

 

c. Cold Storages or Refrigerated Warehouses

Goods are transported in refrigerated containers and stored in refrigerated warehouses. These warehouses are used for storing perishable goods like fruits, vegetables, eggs, butter, fish, meat, etc. Goods stored in cold storages without deterioration in quality, can be made available throughout the year.

 

d. Climate Controlled Warehouses

The controlled climate environment can reduce the rate of metabolism in  fruits  and vegetables. Humidity controlled environments for  delicate  products  such as flowers in dirt-free facilities in these warehouses.

 

e. Automated Warehouses

Automated facilities which can handle several hundreds of kilograms of product at a time. Inside the warehouse premises physical distribution activities are carried out by moving product filled pallets (i.e. platforms that hold large amounts of product). It requires huge investment, latest technology and large turnover of goods.

 

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11th Commerce : Warehousing : Types of Warehouses |


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