Types of Warehouses
Warehouses can be classified as follows:
a. Private Warehouses
b. Government Warehouses
c. Public Warehouses
d. Co-operative Warehouses
e. Bonded Warehouses
f. Institutional Warehouses
g. Distribution Centre Warehouses
a. General Warehouses
b. Special Commodity Warehouses
c. Cold Storages or Refrigerated Warehouses
d. Climate Controlled Warehouses
Private warehouses are built and owned by private business enterprises in order to store the products produced by them. They are exclusively for their use and are not meant for other manufacturing or business units.
They are created and operated by the Government to implement the programmes of the Government. Their services mostly available to government only. A detailed study on all the above warehouses is given at the end of this chapter.
It is open for public at large. Most of the business organisations, especially small and medium scale units cannot afford to have their own warehouses. They may be owned by an individual or some agency. These warehouses operate as per the rules and regulations formed by the Government.
There are warehouses owned and managed by the marketing co-operative societies or agricultural co-operative societies. They are set up to provide warehousing facilities to their members. Example, National Co-operative Development Corporation (NCDC).
Bonded warehouses are those warehouses, which are licensed by the government to accept storage of imported goods which are not cleared due to non-payment of customs duty by the importer. Branding can be undertaken in the warehouse itself. Bank loans can be obtained by submitting the receipt issued by these warehouses as collateral security. Strict supervision and control is imposed by custom authorities on their operation and functioning.
Different institutions and bodies have their own warehouses on account of the nature of their operations. For example, Banks, Railways, etc, have their own warehouses for conducting their activities. Various transport agencies also maintain warehouses for storing the goods which are to be despatched and received.
Goods which need to be temporarily stored for one or two days so that they can be distributed to other offices or customers are stored in Distribution Centers. They are owned by the manufacturer or wholesalers.
They are ordinary warehouses which are useful for storing most of the dry food grains, fertilisers, etc. Protective measures against rat, insects, etc. are undertaken by them.
These warehouses are specially constructed for storing specific type of commodities like tobacco, cotton, wool etc. These warehouses reduce loss of quality and quantity to a great extent. Storage ofpetrol andoilrequires special type of vertical, cylindrical storage tanks.
Goods are transported in refrigerated containers and stored in refrigerated warehouses. These warehouses are used for storing perishable goods like fruits, vegetables, eggs, butter, fish, meat, etc. Goods stored in cold storages without deterioration in quality, can be made available throughout the year.
The controlled climate environment can reduce the rate of metabolism in fruits and vegetables. Humidity controlled environments for delicate products such as flowers in dirt-free facilities in these warehouses.
Automated facilities which can handle several hundreds of kilograms of product at a time. Inside the warehouse premises physical distribution activities are carried out by moving product filled pallets (i.e. platforms that hold large amounts of product). It requires huge investment, latest technology and large turnover of goods.